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Explanation of urban expert Marco Kusumawijaya on Urban Energy in one of Jogja community event in 2013 ago led me to Dlinggo Village, Imogiri Central Java to see first hand the application of energy saving in his residence. At that time Marco, who is also founder of the Jakarta Space Studies and Center Urban Studies (RuJak), explained there is an understanding that needs to be straightened about the concept of renewable energy and energy saving.
In (enforced) renewable energy one needs to take into account the logical savings of energy through the use of alternative energy sources, says Marco as I noted. The exemplified case is entropy, the unit of value of energy needs to produce something. For example, if rice cooking, the entropy produced is greater than when it is still rice. The more energy use in a production process the higher the entropy value.
The energy logic presented by Marco actually explains something quite substantial. When developing renewable energy, as long as it does not utilize other energy to generate new energy then it is right to say as an energy-saving step. But if to generate that new energy we actually spend more energy, then it does not include austerity measures, despite the substitution.
Renewable energy is not a completely new energy as the name implies. Renewable energy such as wind power, and geothermal are the energy sources contained in this earth. Marco emphasized the use of substitution or energy substitution. According to him, we need a replacement energy source, by utilizing solar power, and wind for energy security.
[caption id = "attachment_413516" align = "aligncenter" width = "550" caption = "Locations: BPR (Bumi Pemuda Rahayu) in Dlinggo Village, Imogiri, Bantul."]
In line with Marco's opinion above, in the city of Solo, Central Java there are also examples of the implementation of Energy Efficient Houses. This building, known as the Spice House, utilizes waste wood and iron for recycling, then rebuilt following cheap and friendly designs.
Implementation of energy-efficient home made by Marco, too, by utilizing bamboo materials and set the layout of the building to get enough sunlight. Around the house is surrounded by large trees, so no electronic air conditioning is required. Its layout puts the landscape open rather than just a vacuum.These are the energy-saving measures exemplified by Marco and Mintarga for private buildings. How to scale a macro?
Stories from Ngentak Village
Ngentak village located in Bantul district for five years (2010-2015) is known as the development area of ??hybrid energy of windmills and solar panels. The government and the community cooperate with the Minister of Research and Technology, the Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology (BPPT) and Lapan for the development of alternative energy utilized for the economy of Ngentak Village.
Last visit of 2013 ago me to meet with technicians as well as guard Post, Riswanto. Riswanto (34) explains that Electricity generated from wind power plant in Ngentak village able to meet the electricity supply needs for 100 stalls located on the beach Pandansimo. Each stall gets 1 ampere / day. This amount of power meets the merchant's lighting supply but has not been able to provide additional equipment such as refrigerators. The problem of shortage of power supply causes traders to increase the electricity supply from PLN.
Hybrid electric installation Ngentak assisted by technicians from volunteers who are directly guided by three trainers from LAPAN. Riswanto said, all the technicians are divided into three parts, electrical, machinery and operations. They served in turns to guard machine equipment, even been taken to Germany for a comparative study of machine maintenance.
Economically, the existence of alternative energy in Ngentak village is very helpful in improving the competitiveness of tourism which has been dominated only Depok beach or east-south Yogyakarta.
According to one trader, the operational cost of electricity from wind power is quite cheap around Rp.6.000, – / week. The merchant hopes the government will add wind power plants in his village to increase electricity, given the need for electronics as well as the use of refrigerators, televisions, irons, and others. Increased tourist arrivals at Ngentak beach are also helped by the presence of students conducting energy research on the beach.
Actually the potential of wind power in Indonesia is quite large, reaching 9.2 GW at 130 point in south Java. Until 2013, Ngentak Village is still the village with the largest electric energy development in Indonesia, a pilot model for other hybrid power villages. Although there is now an alternative energy development plan for wind power developed in the coastal areas of Lombok, the echoes have not been so heard, and whether development assistance.
The comparative study conducted by Riswanto and other technicians in Germany is not without a simple reason. Indonesia berkiblat on Germany that first apply wind power and solar power for electrical energy needs. During this time Germany has developed alternative energy wind power reaches 8% and with ambitious target in 2050 by 80%. In fact, the potential of alternative energy in Indonesia is much larger than Germany.
As a tropical maritime country, Indonesia has enough potential to develop wind power for alternative energy, such as the abundance of geothermal and solar energy sources. During the rainy season, turn the maximum operating wind power, and in the dry season or hot solar panels provide greater energy.
How to apply alternative energy for Rural and Urban?By the end of 2014 I returned to reporting on the news in the newspaper that I read related to a hamlet in Kulonprogo Regency that has not yet had electricity. The name of this hamlet Kalibuko, where I met Mbah Suji, who told of his experience of managing the installation of electricity PLN but for two years (2013-2014) but the house has not been powered by electricity.
Mbah Suji chuckled as he told me that he had paid 2.3 Million rupiah to PLN through the village administrator but when the installation of the power grid was done the power cable was heading south, missed his house. The position of the residence beneath the hills is said to complicate the installation of power lines. Indeed, most of the access road in stacking Kalibuko Kokap village is still a steep trail, not asphalted because this street is actually the result of self-help local residents.
Problems that occur Kokap can also be found in other areas, where many villages are so close to the bustling city that has not been electricity. Moreover, if the settlement in a hamlet is not more than 50 heads of households. Generally electricity usage in the villages is also not too big, so dealer companies like PLN do not make it a priority.
The obstacles are in care, as Riswanto found an alternative energy technician in Ngentak Village. If village apparatus, youth villages and LAPAN parties can cooperate, of course the application of solar electricity successfully applied. This village youth can be nurtured by LAPAN in the utilization of solar power technology to the stage of maintenance, generate employment and sustainability.
The government can also hold private parties for alternative energy development considering the operational cost is quite large. Benefits obtained by the company with the development of alternative energy can be used as a program of corporate social responsibility to help household businesses such as the manufacture of snacks, sewing and other types of business.
For the development of alternative energy in urban areas seems to have a fairly wide difference with the conditions of electricity consumption in rural areas. The waste of energy in urban areas is caused by the urban development itself needs infrastructure or commercial sectors. Advertisements that use dozens of neon box lights spend a lot of electricity, but when calculated there are hundreds of billboards in one city. Not to mention other publication tools or building management styles that are not austerity-oriented.
Electricity energy savings for urban areas can be done in many ways, one of which reduces urban billboards, the use of Solar Cell for corporate and office buildings, greening roofs with planting on roofs and building engineering.
The Public Works Ministry building in Jakarta is a pilot of energy-efficient buildings that can be followed by other government buildings. Designs, from elevators to ventilation are shaped in such a way as to minimize electrical energy, self-sufficient water management, and utilization of waste water for landscaping can be studied in many parts of the KemenPU building.
Publication through the pilot building becomes more important and influential in the form of paid advertising only. The upward class of middle-class society tends to be critical and easy to voice opinion so that more proactive campaigns are needed to touch people's lifestyles, strategies that can be digested visually as well as practically.
Indonesia's energy saving mission may not only have to pursue Germany or other developed countries. The most important thing is to improve the mindset and point of view essentially, as Marco explains, prioritizing the application for the community as in Ngentak Village, and reaching out to all circles as the case in Kulonprogo. We need collective movement, we need a simple strategy that is appropriate. And yes, it's more important that we understand our own resources.