Batik, Khazanah Budaya Nusantara

Batik, Khazanah Budaya, Jakarta: Indonesia is very rich in batik. Various patterns and types of batik can be found from the west to the east of Java. Broadly speaking, Javanese batik can be grouped into batik Keraton Jawa and batik north coast of Java. There are two kinds of batik Keraton Jawa, namely Yogyakarta batik and Solo batik.

Traditional batik colors are blue-black, red-brown or soga, and white. The blue-black color symbolizes immortality, the white color represents life or the rays of life and the red-soga color gives meaning to happiness.

In Yogyakarta in particular, traditional batik colors are blue-black, as well as brown and white soga from natural dyes. Blue-black is taken from the leaves of indigofera plant, also called fermented tilapia or tom. While the color of soga or chocolate is taken from a mixture of high red tree bark, jambal bark red brown color, and yellow wood tegeran. Yogya batik motif character is firm, formal, slightly stiff, and obedient to the grip. All forms of motif have meaning.

Solo Batik is famous for its pattern and traditional pattern both for batik and batik. The materials used for coloring many use of materials in the country such as soga Java that has been famous since the first. The famous pattern is Sidomukti and Sidoluruh. Solo Batik has the dominant color of brown soga yellowish. Motives are more flexible, varied and colorful. Although different in coloring, these two batik are both using ukel and cement-cement.

It is said that the different characters between Yogya and Solo batik is related to the different political stances of the Yogyakarta and Solo palaces. The Yogya court is anti-colonial, while the pro-colonial Solo palace. The close relationship between the Solo Palace and the Dutch influenced their batik style to be more free and flexible, not rigid. While the Yogya Palace, which firmly against the Dutch, batiknya style was firm.

The use of batik cloth is also different. In Yogya Palace, there is a standard about the use of this batik cloth. For wedding events, batik cloth used must be patterned Sidomukti, Sidoluhur, Sidoasih, Taruntum, or Grompol. As for the "mitoni" (commemorating the seven monthly), batik cloth that can be worn is batik motif Picis Ceplok Garudo, Parang Mangkoro, or Gringsing Mangkoro.

Some examples of Yogyakarta classical batik motifs such as parang motifs, geometry, banji, creeping plants, aquatic plants, flowers, and animals.

Batik north coast of Java has a very different character from Solo and Yogyakarta batik. The northern coastal communities such as Cirebon, Pekalongan, Lasem, Semarang, Tuban, and Kudus are harbor port communities that interact with many foreign nations.

Batik made in this region is much influenced by saris brought by traders from India. The Dutch women who followed their husbands on duty also gave influence on batik motifs according to their taste, that is with florals. Likewise with women of Chinese descent.

Batik north coast has bright colors and explores many florals. The unique, batik Cirebon, West Java, and Semarang, Central Java, often displays images of humans, animals, ships, houses, and other forms that look like caricatures. Characteristic of Cirebon batik mostly motivated image of forest and wildlife symbol. While the motive of the sea is influenced by Chinese thought due to the Sultanate of Cirebon had once edited the Chinese princess. There is also Cirebonan batik pictorial garuda because it is influenced by batik motif Solo and Yogyakarta.

The encounter of the people of Pekalongan, Central Java, with various nations such as China, Holland, Arab, India, Malay, and Japan in the past has also colored the dynamics of batik motifs and batik design here. Several types of batik motifs influence the various countries then known as the identity of batik Pekalongan. The motifs are Jlamprang batik inspired by India and Arabia, batik Encim and Klangenan influenced peranakan Chinese, Dutch batik, batik Morning Sore, and batik Hokokai which grew rapidly since the Japanese occupation.Bright colors and diverse motifs make Pekalongan batik thrive. In contrast to Solo and Yogyakarta batik, Pekalongan batik looks more dynamic because the game motive is more free. Media cloth also vary. Not only cotton and t-shirts, silk is also a mainstay of Pekalongan batik while competing overseas. Jlamprang motif, Sekarjagat, or other distinctive motifs, become classy when poured in raw materials of silk.

Lasem, Central Java, also known as a city that produces batik. One of the excellent products it has is batik. Because it is produced in Lasem then popularly known as Lasem Batik. Lasem Batik is different from Solo or Yogyakarta batik. Style and style is very thick with coastal nuances that are almost similar to the style of batik Pekalongan.

The early process of Lasem batik brought by Chinese merchants who settled in Lasem. Some of the motifs are Ceplok Latoh, Watu Pecah, Ceplok Piring, Sekar Jagat, Terang Bulan, Kricak Dragon, Sekar Jagat Es The, and Kawung Lerek Sekar Paksi.

Batik motif that do not want to be left behind and is now on the rise, is Batik Madura. Batik Madura has a variety of colors and patterns that are not inferior to the production of other areas. Understandably, Madura batik using natural dyes so the color is quite striking. Madura dyeing which uses natural ingredients from plants, such as jambal wood, jelawe fruit skin, mengkudu root, which makes this cloth more interesting to see. The fabrics are made through the process of batik by hand in the span of time between eight months to a year.

In addition to striking colors, such as yellow, red or green, Madura batik also has a diversity of motives. For example, shoots spears, rhombus, and knitting. In fact, there are a number of motifs lifting various flora and fauna that exist in the daily life of Madurese. Usually, fauna motifs such as fish and other marine animals, are found in Bangkalan, Madura. While the motifs of flora, many found in the region Pamekasan and Sumenep. (ROM)

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