[Book Review] Indonesian Peat Ecosystem Peatland Prospect

According to Wetlands International in 2006 estimates Indonesia's peatlands constitute 39% of the world's tropical peatlands. The 21 million hectares of peatland spans three main islands, Papua with 7.97 million hectares (in 2006), Kalimantan with 5.77 million hectares (in 2004), Sumatra with 7.20 million hectares (2003). But now it has been reported only 14.9 million hectares in 2011 (BBPPSDLP-Balitbang Ministry of Agriculture).

Forest encroachment activities by humans in the form of forest burning & drainage / water canal development to open industrial forest plantation land, have caused damage & degradation of peatland forest ecosystem. Peatland forest fires in 2015 are suspected due to the accumulation of policy / technical errors in the management of peat ecosystems.

Through Government Regulation no. 71 Year 2014 and the establishment of Peat Restoration Agency (BRG) in 2015, strives to control the damage & degradation of peat ecosystems by conducting rehabilitation / restoration of peat ecosystem. One alternative to responsible peat restoration techniques is paludiculture, which conducts cultivation on stagnant peat swamplands. The condition of saturated peat swamp water is maintained without drainage, while in drained conditions drainage closure will be wet again. This will maintain peat conditions and produce biomass on wet & re-wet peatlands, as well as providing carbon accumulation. Besides believed to be re-formed ecological function and biophysical condition, also restore the economic function of peat ecosystem.

Uniquely paludikultur products can provide food, feed, fiber, fuel and wood industry raw materials. This restoration activity will be able to provide income opportunities for the social economy of local communities. The application of paludiculture in addition to the cultivation of plants (especially local species) adaptive to stagnant peatlands, fishery cultivation and livestock farming as long as it does not interfere with the role and function of the peat ecosystem.

The term Paludikultur is a new terminology & not yet widely known by various circles of Indonesian society. From the "Paludikultur di Indonesia Wetlands Indonesia" study conducted by Wetlands International Indonesia and the Norwegian Development Cooperation (NORAD), in collaboration with the Center for Research & Development of Forest (P3H) Balitbang Ministry of LHK RI has successfully published a book entitled "Paludikultur Ekosistem Peambut Indonesia Prospect". This book is expected to become one of the reference materials in the management of peat ecosystem & restoration of degraded peat ecosystem.

Published and printed for the first time in June 2016 by Forda Press Bogor, the book has a thickness of 148×210 mm, xvi + 71 pages, ISBN number: 978-602-6961-05-1. This book was written by Hesti Lestari Tata (Researcher at P3H Balitbang Ministry of LHK RI) and Adi Susmianto (Widyaiswara Utama in PPLSDMLHK Ministry of LHK RI).

Dr. Hesti Lestari Tata completed his Bachelor program in 1993 at the Department of Biology F-MIPA Bogor Agricultural University (IPB). Since 1998 until now is a researcher in Center for Research & Development Forest Balitbang Ministry of LHK RI. Year 2001 successfully passed the Master of Science Program at IPB Forest Science Program. Then in 2008 he graduated from Utrecht University's Doctoral Education in the Department of Plant Ecology & Biodiversity. Active in the study & research of peat ecosystem since 2009 until now. Post-Doctoral Research under the Female Post-Doc World Agroforestry Center program begins 2012-2014 with agroforestry focus on forests & peatlands.

Ir. H. Adi Susmianto, MSc completed his Bachelor program in 1981 at the Forest Management Department of the Forestry Institute of Bogor (IPB). He graduated with a Master of Science degree in Forest Economics at Michigan State University in 1994. From 1981 to 2015 he worked at the Directorate General of Forest Protection & Nature Conservation, Forestry Research and Development, Directorate General of Social Forestry & Environmental Partnership. Forest and landscape conservation conservationist (especially peat swamp forest), since December 2015 until now active as Widyaiswara Utama at Center for Education & Training of Human Resource Environment Forestry Ministry of LHK RI.

The book "Prospect of Indonesian Peatland Ecosystems Ecosystem" consists of eight chapters as follows

Chapter 1 Introduction; contains the background and objectives that discuss the definition of peat according to PP. 71 of 2014 and the condition of peat ecosystem in Indonesia.

Chapter 2 Methodology; various scientific approaches conducted in the phases of paludiculture research in Indonesia.Chapter 3 History & Development of Paludikultur in Indonesia; will see the earliest history of small-scale cultivation management in peat swamps by traditional communities that have been hereditary until their current development of indispensable restoration efforts in the return of ecological functions of peat swamps.

Chapter 4 Types of Plants in the Paludikultur System; will discuss some highly adaptive paludiculture crops to peat ecosystem conditions such as Sagu (metroxylon spp), Nipah (nypa fruticans wurmb), Jelutung Rawa (dyera polyphylla), Ramin (gonystylus bancanus), Gemor (alseodaphne spp & nothaphoebe spp), Gelam ( melaleuca cajuputi powell), Purun Tikus (eleocharis dulcis hensch), Tengkawang (shorea spp), Balangeran (shorea balangeran burck).

Chapter 5 Paludiculture Activities in Indonesia; will show traditional paludiculture practices on the three main islands of Indonesia's peatland ecosystem of Sumatra (Tohor River, Meranti Islands Riau, Berbak Jambi National Park, Bram Itam River, West Jabung District Jambi, Muara Merang Village, Musi Banyuasin Regency, Kedaton, Ogan Komering Regency Ilir Sumsel), Kalimantan (Sebangau National Park of Central Kalimantan, former Project of One Million Hectares of Central Kalimantan), Papua (Sagu Forest of Jayapura District).

Chapter 6 Market Opportunities & Policies; will see the various economic potentials and development policies of various commodities from the application of paludiculture, all of which are non-timber forest products (HHBK) products but have a lower economic value than wood forest products.

Chapter 7 The Paludikultur Development Strategy in Indonesia; will see how the analysis of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats (SWOT analysis) of the paludiculture development strategy that has been implemented in Indonesia.

Chapter 8 Road Recommendations & Maps; will provide roadmap recommendations and directives in formulating the correct implementation of paludiculture system policy, so that common understanding between stakeholders can be established to facilitate synergy and integration of the implementation of peat restoration program.

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