There are several social and environmental issues that have been claimed to present the threat of a global warming disaster for our species and the planet. Such global warming is not only about the future shape of our planet and society, but it also includes questions and concerns over science, mainly because it becomes involved in political and moral issues. It analyzes the counter-claims promoted by the conservative movement between 1990 and 1997 for being mobilized to challenge the legitimacy of global warming as a social problem. A content thematic analysis of publications circulating on the website of a conservative leading think tank reveals there are three main counter-claims as follows:
First, the movement to criticize evidentia on the basis of global warming is weak, if not completely wrong.
Second, the movement argues that global warming will have great benefits if it occurs.
Third, the movement warned that proposed actions to improve global warming would do more harm than good. In the words of the conservative movement lian affirms that, while the science of global warming seems to be begrowing more and more for sure, the harmful effects of global warming policy are becoming increasingly certain .. global climate change is becoming a widely accepted social issue. Also often referred to as the greenhouse effect. to understand the controversy of global warming in the United States, it is necessary to complement the social issues' focus in claimsmaking by paying attention to the process of framing and movement / interaction countermovement.
The Legitimacy of Global Warming as a Problem
In the early 1990s, social scientists began to learn how social and political forces facilitated the development of global warming as a legitimate social problem required a remedial action. Claim-makers are able to achieve increasing media attention to this global warming for several reasons: through timely connections to more popular issues such as nuclear winter and ozone depletion. due to extreme droughts during the summer of 1988.
and because of the dramatic Senate testimony of James Hansen in June 1988 linking the normal hot weather harasses our nation for global warming. At the same time, counter-claims began to emerge with concerns over the economic costs of binding and climbing the Bush administration (Mazur and Lee 1993, p. 699; Williams and Frey 1997, p 298.). Many researchers affirm that increased skepticism also reflects the inclusion of source politics, especially members of the Bush administration, in the media debate.
Most researchers conclude that global warming has completed the necessary stages of both public arena models and issueattention cycles, they can not explain the latest developments. Ungar (1998) recently stated that a major controversy over global warming is therefore not being as valuable as a more successfully defined problem of ozone depletion, while the study noted the global warming claims over just running out as a social problem and now competing with problems which is more urgent for attention. Unfortunately, this account fails to acknowledge the effects of strong opposition that has emerged to challenge the legitimacy of global warming.
Social Issues and Social Movement
Bash argues that the sociology of the European continent adopts the orientation of social movements capable of accommodating both macro and micro-level focus on social processes. He believes that broad historicity and contextual analysis is an integral part of this orientation. the concept of claims and frames seem very similar. Both are primarily seen as a social actors discursive tool. Therefore, they are often interpreted as texts and analyzed methodologically as rhetorical arguments. Also, both refer to the daily activities of definer social problems or participants of social movements. Thus, they are both often associated with perceived injustice andlor. In the spirit of Bash (1994, 1995), that brief explanation of these differences can explain the difference between the perspective of social problems and social movements perspective that is:
First, claims are identified as defining specific products of social problems and they are conceptually integrated with the internal cycle of social problems.
Secondly, the concept of claims seems to require, or at least overemphasize, the bodies of individual actors.The emergence of counter movement
Most of these segments tend to focus on local or regional issues, especially challenging government restrictions on the use of natural resources. However, in the case of global environmental problems, we see a new thrust of full-scale environmental opposition involvement from the conservative movement. Basically, these environmentalists claim that the increase in scientific evidence supports the idea that global warming is happening right now, or will happen in the near future. Furthermore, they affirm that global warming will negatively impact almost every aspect of our lives, potentially causing important problems in the future. In addition, they argue that actions are needed to slow or stop global warming as a whole, as they will also help improve other diseases such as resource depletion and pollution. the characterization of global warming as a major problem and the threats resulting from binding international treaties to reduce carbon dioxide emissions are seen as a direct threat to the sustainable growth of the economy, free markets, national sovereignty and the continued elimination of key government regulation goals promoted by the conservative movement. this utilizes both works in the following analysis to illustrate how the conservative movement challenged the environmentalists' prognostic and diagnostic frame of global warming.
the environmental movement successfully extended the international level mobilization by collaborating with scientists and policies bringing some global environmental issues to public attention especially global climate change. In particular, social scientists are little concerned with the intense efforts of the industry and the conservative movement to establish what Freudenburg (2000) calls "non-problematicity" global warming. By focusing on the mobilization of conservative movements into effective countermovement directly opposed environmentalists' framing of global warming as a problem. This study identifies three counter-claims through a conservative movement challenging the world of warming legitimacy as a social problem.
First, conservatives claim that the evidence base of global warming is weak, if not mistaken.
Second, conservatives argue that the net effect of global warming will be beneficial if it occurs.
Third, conservatives argue that the proposed policy to improve the alleged global warming problem will do more harm than good.
Thus, we need to pay more attention to the efforts of conservative movements and industry allies to mobilize an effective countermovement dedicated to building the non-problematicity of global warming.
McCright, A.M., R.E. Dunlap (2000). Challenging global warming as a social problem: An analysis of the conservative movement's counter-claims. Social Problems 47 (4): 499-522