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In the past decade, global climate change has become a widely accepted social issue. Also referred to as global warming or the anthropogenic greenhouse effect, global climate change is a visible increase in global average temperatures resulting from greenhouse gas releases produced by human activity. This awareness of global threats is reinforced by public concerns about environmental issues and thus provided environmentalists, scientists and policy makers with new momentum in their efforts to promote environmental protection. Not surprisingly, the opponents of this effort mobilized in recent years to mount intense opposition calls for major international action to prevent global warming such as treaties designed to reduce carbon dioxide emissions (Brown 1997; Gelbspan 1997). The purpose of this work is to examine this growing opposition, which had previously been relatively neglected.
Legitimation of Global Warming as A Problem
In the early 1990s, social scientists began to study how social and political forces facilitated the development of global warming as a legitimate social problem requires ameliorative action. In explaining the variation in public attention to the problem of global warming, most early studies in social science both used Downs' (1972) problem-cycle concerns or Hilgartner and Bosk in the General arena (1988) model. The stronger findings emerging from this study are as follows. First, the media coverage of global warming was minimal until 1988 (Mazur and Lee 1993, 695 p .; Miller, et al., 1990, MS 29), but soon reached a peak between mid 1989 and early 1990 (McComas and Shanahan 1999, page 43; 1995 Trumbo, page 31; William and Frey 1997, page 289).
The beginning of news about global warming depends on scientists as the source. Over time however, economists and politicians inched out scholars as the domino of this news source (Lichter and Lichter 1992, page 3, Miller, et al., 1990, p.34; Trumbo 1996, ms. 277, Wilkins 1993 , p. 78). With this shift in sources, the news media shifted the focus from stories about global warming to science stories about policy debates on rules and Agreements (Lichter and Lichter, p.2; Trumbo 1995, page 26). At the same time, counter-claims began to emerge with growing concerns over the economic costs of binding the actions and ascent of the Bush administration (Mazur and Lee 1993, 699 p .; Williams and Frey 1997, page 298). In general, support for the reality of global warming is higher in the News than on the editorial-articles, where the ideas of some key scientists are skeptical of global warming of developing science (Wilkins, p 79).
Social Problems and Social Movements
In the past, some sociologists attempted to bridge the gap between the social problems of Literature and the social movements of literature. Bash (1994, 1995) writes extensively on the differences between the two orientations. He argues that the sociology of the European continent adopts the orientation of social movements capable of accommodating both macro and micro-level focus on social processes. He believed that extensive historical and contextual analysis is the integral of this orientation. On the other hand, Bash (1994, p.257) sees the dominant pressure of Sociology in the United States as having defined important concerns as a social problem that "appears to appear one by one and each, captured individually, begging for a quick resolution case . " This results in a relatively ahistorical approach that leads to microleve situational analysis.