Image source: http://brandswithfansblog.fandommarketing.com/files/2010/05/history-blogging3.png
Understanding Citizen Journalism
Citizen Journalism is a journalism practice undertaken by non professional journalists in this regard by citizens.
Citizen Journalis (Citizen Journalism) is an ordinary citizen who performs the proper function of professional journalists who generally use a new media channel ie the internet to disseminate information and news they can.
Shayne Bowman and Chris Willis then define citizen journalism as the act of citizens playing an active role in the process of collecting, reporting, analyzing, and disseminating news and information.
There are several terms that are associated with the concept of citizen journalism. Public journalism, advocacy journalism, participatory journalism, participatory media, open source reporting, distributed journalism, citizens media, advocacy journalism, grassroot journalism, to we-media.
J.D. Lasica, in Online Journalism Review (2003), categorizes citizen journalism media into 5 types:
Audience participation (such as user comments attached to news stories, personal blogs, photos, or video footage taken from personal handycams, or local news written by community members).
2. Web news sites or independent information (Consumer Reports, Drudge Report).
3. Pure participatory newsletters (OhmyNews).
4.Collaborative media sites (Slashdot, Kuro5hin).5.Another form of thin media (mailing list, newsletter e-mail).
6.Personal broadcasting sites (video broadcasting sites, such as KenRadio).
Form of Citizen Journalism
As quoted in the book Observing the Phenomenon of Citizen Journalism, Gibson (Severin and Tankard, 2005: 445) defines: Virtual world (cyberspace) is a globally shrouded reality, computer-supported, computer-accessible, multidimensional, artificial, or virtual. In this reality, where each computer is a window, visible or audible objects that are not physical rather than representation of physical objects, but rather the style, character, and action of data generation, the making of pure information (Yudhapramesti, 2007: 5-6).
Steve Outing has classified the following forms of citizen journalism:
1. Citizen journalism opens space for public comment. In that space, readers or audiences can react, praise, criticize, or add professional journalism writing materials. In conventional print media of this type commonly known as a letter reader.
2. Adding public opinion as part of the article written. Citizens were asked to write their experiences on a major topic of coverage reported by journalists.
3. Collaboration between professional journalists and nonjournalists who have capabilities in the materials covered. The goal is used as a tool to direct or check the accuracy of the article. Sometimes these nonjournalist professionals may also be the sole contributors to the article.
4. Bloghouse citizens. Forms free blogs are known, for example there is wordpress, blogger, or multiply. Through blogs, people can share stories about the world, and can tell the world based on their experiences and perspectives.
5. Newsroom citizen transparency blogs. This form is a blog provided by a media organization as an effort of transparency. In this case the reader can make a complaint, criticism, or praise for what the media organization displayed.
6. Stand-alone citizen journalism site, which through the editing process. The donation of reports from citizens, usually about things that are very local, which is experienced directly by the citizens. The editor plays a role in maintaining the quality of the report, and educating the citizens (contributors) on topics of interest and deserves to be reported.7. Stand-alone citizen journalism, which does not go through the editing process.
8. A combination of stand-alone citizen journalism website and print edition.
9. Hybrid: pro + citizen journalism. A work of media organizations that combines the work of professional journalists with citizen journalists.
10. Merging between professional journalism and citizen journalism in one roof. The website buys writings from professional journalists and receives citizen journalists' writing.
11. Model Wiki. In the Wiki, the reader is also an editor. Everyone can write articles and everyone can also add or comment on published comments (Yudhapramesti, 2007).
The Development and Role of Citizen Journalism
The progress of information technology has definitely contributed enormously in the development of society today. Supported by technological advances, especially the internet, mass media has formed a vast public space. Citizen participation becomes wide open with this condition.
Support for citizen journalism also came from journalists. Richard Sambrook, BBC World correspondent who said that there has been a formation of information networks in the global era that allows the emergence of high interaction between the BBC with the audience. He observed that BBC journalists should be able to work with the audience by giving an opportunity to contribute to the information on the BBC. The mainstream blog is the pioneer of citizen journalism in various countries as an example of OhmyNews in South Korea (Spirit Against mainstream media).
In Indonesia, citizen journalism can also be spelled out and its usefulness is felt in the presence of major events such as terrorist attacks and natural disasters. Citizen journalism is also linked to hyperlocalism because of its tremendous commitment to local issues, which are "small" (for mainstream media sizes), thus escaping mainstream media coverage. Citizen journalism is not aimed at creating a uniform public opinion. The reporting of citizen journalism is more in-depth with time-bound processes, such as deadlines in media mains.
The development of citizen journalism is supported also by the development of citizen media and social media. Since 2002-nan, media citizens have grown rapidly trying to find an existence in the midst of traditional media atmosphere. With the internet, citizen media is able to disseminate information in the form of text, audio, video, photos, comments and analysis. Even capable of running press function like watchdog, information filter, fact checking even editing.
The content or content of citizen journalism may be events, experiences, and reportage included in the news, may also be opinions, reviews or analysis included in the opinion, otherwise it may be an idea or idea such as a lightweight or diary, fiction, tips and tutorial .Citizen journalists or citizen journalism can take advantage of existing media either mainsteram media or social media. In mainstream media such as print media through reader letters, television media through iwitness and your voice, radio media through traffic info, online media can be through comment field. While social media through blogs (wordpress, blogspot), microblog (twitter), Social Media Blog (kompasiana, ohmy news, now public), Friend Site (facebook, friendster), Site photo share (flickr, twitpic) youtube).
Ethics Citizen Journalism
There is no standard limit for citizen journalism in making the news. But Citizen journalism also has its ethics. Ethics are more or less the same as writing ethics in online media such as not spreading false news, not defame, not triggering SARA conflict and mentioning news sources clearly.
Online Journalism course module, John Widodo
https://www.lensanews.com/2011/09/18/etika-citizen-jurnalism/ accessed on Thursday 19 April 2012 at 19.00 WIB.
https://eprints.undip.ac.id/7226/1/journalism_globalisasi_informasi.pdf accessed on Thursday 19 April at 19.00 WIB
https://nurudin.staff.umm.ac.id/download-as-pdf/umm_blog_article_121.pdf accessed on Thursday 19 April at 21.00 WIB