Climate Change Impacts in Indonesia

Climate Change Impacts in Indonesia

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Climate change is a natural phenomenon that will continue to occur until hundreds of years and this we can not avoid. However, global warming that has occurred since the industrial revolution has accelerated the occurrence of climate change. Although we can not prevent climate change, we can do a lot to prevent climate change from happening as quickly as it is today.

The amount of carbon emissions trapped in the atmosphere makes the earth more heat is the cause of climate change. Without us knowing, the activities we do daily also contribute to the amount of carbon emissions in the atmosphere. Examples such as air pollution in the form of CO2 generated from motor vehicles that we drive. The burning of fuel oil in the transportation sector in Jakarta produces 182.5 million tons of CO2 per year (https://databoks.katadata.co.id). Not only the vehicles, electronic devices that we use everyday such as lights, fans, televisions, air conditioners, computers and other electronic devices that use electricity also leads to increased CO2 emissions concentration. Other industrial activities in factories and offices are also one of the contributors of greenhouse gas emissions in the atmosphere.

There are still many people who do not care about the environment because they are not aware of the impact of climate change that occurs today. Climate change has had a great impact for Indonesia in various sectors. The rise in temperatures occurring since the mid-19th century caused extreme weather in the world that triggered various natural disasters. It is estimated that by 2050, 136 major cities in the world located in coastal areas will experience a loss of 52 million US dollars due to floods due to rising sea levels and storms. As the capital of the Indonesian state, Jakarta is one of the ten cities in the world most at risk of major losses due to flooding due to rising sea levels [1] [2].

The rise of seawater causing coastal abrasion and coastal retreat several kilometers caused the people living in coastal areas to lose their homes and resources [3]. Small islands in Indonesia threatened drowning due to rising sea levels.

In recent years, tropical cyclones have hit a number of regions in Indonesia. Based on the Meteorology, Climatology and Geophysics Agency (BMKG), there have been five times tropical cyclones occurring in Indonesia. Durga tropical cyclone engulfing the southwestern waters of Bengkulu in 2008 caused waves as high as three meters. In 2010 tropical cyclone Orchids hit the western waters of Sumatra. Four years later the waters of southwest Sumatra were hit by tropical cyclones of Bakung. Last November arose a tropical cyclone Cempaka in the southern waters of Central Java that made high rainfall in Yogyakarta and floods in Pacitan. The tropical cyclone Dahlia increased in the southwestern region of Bengkulu occurred in November this year. High rainfall in Bengkulu spread to Lampung to south western Java potentially flooding and landslides.

Floods resulting from high rainfall make the environment polluted and dirty resulting in various diseases such as diarrhea, cholera, dengue fever. Some other diseases such as malaria are also caused by rising temperatures in the atmosphere. In the health sector, climate change has certainly caused various diseases in Indonesia.

As an agrarian country, Indonesia suffered heavy losses in the agricultural sector due to climate change. The long dry season when El-Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) caused the drought on farmland to irrigate the irrigation system causing drought. The area of ??agriculture is reduced due to the increasing damage to agricultural land due to lack of water availability.

Climate change also causes pests and disease outbreaks in plants. During the prolonged dry season, rice stalk borer pests, pests of grasshoppers. While the rainy season causes crackle and blast disease in rice [4]. A decrease in the production of food for crops and crop failures has an effect on the reduced incomes of farmers that cause them to migrate to other areas to earn a living.

Indonesia, which is a triangle of coral reefs of the world, has a significant impact on coral reefs due to climate change. Based on data from the Indonesian Institute of Sciences, coral mortality in Pulau Seribu and Karimunjawa Island reached 90% in 1982-1983 and re-mortality occurred in the Java Sea by 60% – 70% in 1997 -1998 when ENSO occurred. Rising sea water temperatures make coral reefs become stressful, releasing algae that produce nutrients for coral reefs. Coral bleaching is a sign that the coral is dying dIn addition to the role of government, we as human beings living on earth must contribute significantly to reducing greenhouse gas emissions. We can familiarize ourselves with green lifestyles such as reducing the use of plastics, reducing the use of electricity and using alternative energy such as solar energy, using public transportation and recycling garbage. Indonesia is a country with the second largest plastic waste producer in the world. Sixty to eighty percent of the waste floating in the ocean is plastic [9] [10]. Plastic waste is a global problem that can harm the environment because it is difficult to decompose, thus increasingly accumulates every year [11]. Plastic waste also jeopardizes their survival and worse can cause death from ingestion by marine animals [10].

The optimistic things you can do to reduce the use of plastic is to carry your own bag or pocket when shopping, using your own bottle instead of buying disposable bottles, not using a plastic straw but using a bamboo straw, and applying reuse, reduce, recycle trash.

By looking at the consequences of climate change, we must be aware that today's climate change is causing various impacts that cause great harm, harm and risk that can affect our lives in Indonesia. Therefore, from now on we must take action and act in protecting the environment so that climate change is not getting worse.

1. Hallegatte, S., Green, C., Nicholls, R.J., Morlot, J. (2013). Future Flood Losses in Major Coastal Cities. Nature Climate Change, pp. 802-806.

2. Nicholls, W. (2008). Place, Networks, Space: Theorising the Geographies of Social Movements. Transactions of The Institute of British Geographers, Vol. 34

3. Harmony. (2005). Socio-Economic Impacts of Climate Change. Proceeding of PESAT national seminar.

4. Woyono, S. (2001). Climate Change and the Disease of Plant Pests and Diseases. Biodiversity Seminar in the Future of Indonesia's Future Challenge).

5. Mclean, and Tsyban. (2001). Coastal Zone and Marine Ecosystem. Cambridge Universtiy Press.

6. Bryant, Burke, McManus and Spalding. (1998). Reef at Risk: A map-based indicator of threats to the world's coral reefs.

7. R & D Agency for Forestry. (2010). Mangrove Forest Management.

8. Setyawan and Winarno. (2006). Direct Utilization of Mangrove Ecosystems in Central Java and Land Use in the Surroundings; Damage and Restoration Efforts. Biodiversity, Vol 7.9. Barnes (2005). Remote Island Reveal Rapid Rise of the Southern Hemisphere Sea Debris. The Scientific World Journal.

10. Derraik, J.G.B. (2002). The Pollution of the Marine Environment by Plastic Debris. Marine Pollution Bulletin.

11. European Commission's Directorate-General Environment. (2011). Plastic Waste: Ecological and Human Health Impacts. Science for Environment Policy.

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