I just found out there is also a cloning term for account (account) in Kompasioner. Although I do not understand what the purpose is and how someone cloned his account with different account profile information when it was made the same person. Wes .. whatever. I am more interested in cloning plants.
Clones have long been known in agriculture or forestry. Clones are the result of proliferation of selected plant material by vegetative means (asexual). Usually cloned are plants that have superior properties, such as bushy fruit, do quickly, good fruit, grow quickly, resistant to certain pest attack or disease resistant and can grow in a variety of extreme environmental conditions. Cloning is carried out by vegetatively propagating a parent that has been selected earlier, through vegetative means (without through sexual mating or cross-pollination) such as by rooted cutting, budding), connect (grafting), or by using tissue culture technology (tissue culture).
In the world of forestry, plant cloning has grown very rapidly. One country that has developed a clone method for its production scale is Brazil that developed the Eucalyptus clone. In addition to Brazil, South American countries have followed in the footsteps of Brazil as pioneers such as Argentina, Colombia, Venezuela, Mexico, Uruguay, Chile, Peru, etc., which encourage forest crop productivity (read: industrial plantation) in these countries and mentioned can reach an average growth of 40-50 m3 / ha / year. That is, from one hectare of forestry crops can be produced 240-300 m3 / ha of wood at the age of 6 years. Other countries also do not want to miss, the United States, South Africa, Africa, Portugal, India, China, Thailand and other countries are increasingly racing to increase their forestry productivity with cloning technology. Pinus plant that was once very difficult to develop by cuttings or tissue culture, has been successfully cloned by the United States, Australia, New Zealand and Brazil, while Japan and China have found clone technology for longevity forestry crops.
What about forestry Indonesia? Clone technology has also been developed in Indonesia though it looks slow. Perhutani has succeeded in developing superior teak clones, and several other private companies have succeeded in developing Eucalyptus and Acacia clones. However, the productivity of HTI timber in Indonesia has not been able to offset the productivity of crops in Brazil, the average productivity of short-lived timber plantations in Indonesia is estimated to be at 10-15 m3 / ha / year, which is 4 times less than productivity in Brazil. Why does this happen ?
The development of forestry crop cloning technology in Indonesia has several problems, namely:
Less synergy between Government Institutions and Private Institutions. This is clearly seen, where often we see, government research institutions (including universities / universities) are still dominant with pure science research, while the applied sciences though exist but far behind. This is what causes the research results of government agencies to be less applicable to private institutions.
Lack of government interest (?) Or government funds to support research activities at private institutions. The government seems to be off hand with research activities at private institutions that want to quickly obtain an applicable and economical research results. Private institutions end up working on their own research and trying to find new breakthroughs without involving the government. The results of the research belong to the private sector itself and rarely published to the public on the basis of company secrets.This is a sectoral development and can not be applied by other institutions in Indonesia. Unlike the case if this research is a government and private partnership, then the publication will be wider because it can be facilitated by the government.
The high cost of cloning technology is also one of the problems. Only strong capital institutions are able to prepare facilities and resources for the work of cloning technology. For example, to build and run a tissue culture laboratory with a capacity of 1 million seedlings per year requires funds of +/- 3 billion rupiah and annual operating costs about 2 billion rupiah. The high cost is also due to various tools and materials tissue culture technology can only be obtained by way of imports from developed countries.
In order to compensate for clonal technology that other countries have achieved, the government should be able to encourage private research institutions to work together. Forms of encouragement can be in the form of funds or cooperation of experts, researchers of the government