After years of decline, the UN report shows that the famine is on the rise again. By 2016, 815 million people or 11 percent of the world's population are starving.
The number of disasters such as floods, land and forest fires, refugees, and conflicts shows the instability of the planet and the more difficult it is to predict. The coverage of various disasters filled the media. As a result, news about the poor and hungry is not too much and prevents them from accessing adequate food aid.
Independent efforts by farmers and farmers to meet the food experience constraints. Farmers do not have sufficient access to banking, market, or credit services. This often happens because of bad governance, or inappropriate policies. In addition, tribal factors, sex, and personal barriers also affect the ability of the farmer.
Another cause of famine is the increasing conflict and political instability in the world. According to the UN report, 489 million people who are starving live in conflict-affected areas. Meanwhile, more than three quarters or 122 million malnourished children live in conflicting countries.
Not to forget, climate change also exacerbates the conflict and famine. The impacts of climate change are the increasing incidence of typhoons, the longer and more frequent droughts, and the increasingly heavy rains exacerbate the contradictions and lack of eating that occur. Here it is clear that the effects of climate change on crop failure are in turn causing conflict.
Farmers living in conflict areas must face enormous challenges. They can be expelled from their land, food crops on their lands can be damaged, become barriers to access seeds, fertilizers, and sell agricultural products. Furthermore, war prevents farmers from obtaining water and food for livestock. The consequence is the disruption of the planting cycle.
Conflict, climate change, disaster, plus the lack of food then trigger migration. According to the UN report, 64 million people were displaced from their homes. Of these, more than 15 million were affected by the conflicts that led to food crises such as Syria, Yemen, Iraq, Southern Sudan, Nigeria and Somalia.
Concrete steps need to be taken to reduce the hunger that occurs in the world. For example, people in rural areas need to have sustainable ways to meet their own needs in times of crisis. This means the need for strategies to support the livelihoods of rural, resilient, varied and connected populations.
Various efforts to achieve food security of farmers are done by increasing the varieties of plants or livestock, adding fertilizer, and various other products that are needed. This approach is important, but it can encourage farmers to focus on specific products such as wheat and rice. Just focusing on this particular product is risky because if the farmer does not have seed, fertilizer, or heavy rainfall, then he has no more food reserves.
Faced with these challenges, various development agencies, NGOs and aid agencies are working to support diverse traditional farming systems. They provide financial, scientific and policy support for the production and marketing of agricultural products produced. Measures that address local wisdom including local food is expected to provide a variety of nutrients needed by local residents and reduce the risk of disruption of plants or livestock by the threat of disaster or conflict.
Equally important, farmers need to be given additional skills to have other livelihoods besides farming. Other sources of income besides farming can be a reserve to buy food when harvest failure occurs. Thus, the family's food security is also created.Conflict that often happens to divide the rural community and devastate social social order. In fact, in social networks in this community exchange of information, services, and goods occur. Here is also where the growth of efforts to protect the natural resources, as well as providing security and reserves of defense when the crisis occurs.
Responding to the challenge of the destruction of the social structure of this society, then in some places made efforts to support food security of farmers. For example, in addition to practicing local and traditional wisdom, farmers are also introduced to various social networking innovations. In this way, they can collect resources, store food, seeds, fertilizer, and invest.
An example of innovation that can be done is the use of smart phones so that farmers can obtain information about weather and market prices. They can also work with fellow farmers and sellers, obtain capital loans, or innovate farms and other farms. Utilization of various forms of social networking is key to supporting food security and resilience of livelihoods.
This paper is translated by change from here.