Environmental issues are not a new issue in community life, but not as a question mark emerging in society to respond to these issues. Environment both in the meaning of nature and social and economic circumstances are consciously or do not have something closely enough attachment, where humans as a social society will affect each other that will affect the environmental changes be it natural, social, and economic surrounding.
One of the most vulnerable issues today is environmental issues in the sense of nature as a shelter for society. There have been many communities who are aware of this problem and the initiative owner to contribute to the problem, either individually or in an organization. The number of factories built today not only provide a source of income for the surrounding community but the factory can also affect the surrounding environment. Factories established to provide people with employment opportunities even cause serious environmental problems. The emergence of environmental problems has consequences for the health of the surrounding population. Inadequate environmental conditions gradually cause problems for nearby populations such as disease outbreaks and ecosystem damage. This will lead to conflict between the local population and the investors. As happened in Kendeng, Rembang, Central Java.
About PT. Semen Gresik
PT Semen Gresik (Persero) Tbk is a company engaged in cement industry and is the largest cement producer in Indonesia. On December 20, 2012, PT Semen Indonesia (Persero) Tbk was officially renamed from PT Semen Gresik (Persero) Tbk. Inaugurated in Gresik on August 7, 1957 by the first President of the Republic of Indonesia with an installed capacity of 250,000 tons of cement per year. On 8 July1991 Semen Gresik was listed on the Jakarta Stock Exchange and Surabaya Stock Exchange making it the first SOEs to go public by selling 40 million shares to the public.
Quoting Supriyanto's report (in industri.bisnis.com, 2013), the cement factory in Rembang is one of two new plant construction projects being undertaken by PT Semen Indonesia (Persero) Tbk in addition to Padang and West Sumatra. PT Semen Indonesia (Persero)
PT Semen Indonesia is expanding, with the construction of a new plant in Pati regency, Central Java. Pati Regency was chosen as the construction of a cement plant because it has a unique natural wealth, namely the landscape of kars in the North Kendeng Mountains. These mountains include the districts of Pati, Kudus, Gorongan, Blora, Rembang to Tuban East Java. Kars is the main raw material for making cement. From Kendeng Kendal Community Network (JMPPK) data shows that the northern kendeng mountainous ecosystem has an underground river. He is able to supply household water and agricultural land area of ??15,873.9 Ha in Sukolilo District and 9,063,232 Ha in Kayen sub-district, Pati regency.
Other natural wealth on the ground Starch is a forest resource. In the location to be a cement plant, there are about 2,756 hectares of land that is currently managed by the LMDH (Lembaga Desa Desa Hutan). 5,512 people rely on forest resources. On the other hand, the natural wealth of kars landscapes becomes the target of cement companies. It is at this point that tension begins to emerge. People rely on their dependence on natural resources, while companies have an interest in exploitation for commercial purposes.
The tension between the people of Rembang, Central Java and PT Semen Indonesia began on 16 June 2014. At that time PT Semen Indonesia started laying the first stone of the factory construction. The construction of the plant is a long controversy. Some residents of the North Kendeng Mountains reject the development plan. Local people also rejected. The rejection is on the grounds that the construction of a cement plant that will mine limestone in the mountains of kars will threaten food security and the availability of water that has been utilized for various purposes.
Various actions were carried out, at least 100 people, especially mothers of farmers from Tegaldowo Village, Rembang Regency, Central Java, set up tents in the cement plant construction area as one of their actions which rejected the construction of Indonesian Cement Plant in Kendeng Area. The location of the tent they named Tenda Tolak Semen was on the edge of the entrance to the project of building a cement factory in Bulu District, Rembang Regency. The residents did so as an action to reject the cement plant in the karst area of ??Kendeng Mountain, which is mining and destroying their neighborhood. Citizens said they would continue until their demands for heavy equipment to be removed from the cement plant site and mining were canceled.The news that Mongabay.co.id reported on June 16, 2014 stated that the logging of forest areas is not in line with the approval of the principle of exchange of forest area by the Minister of Forestry. Letter Number S. 279 / Menhut-II / 2013 dated April 22, 2013, in the letter stipulates that the permitted area to be felled is KHP Mantingan forest area. Please note in regulation no 14 of 2011 on RTRW Kab. Rembang Bulu District is not designated as a large industrial area. (Mongabay.co.id, 2014)
Referring to Article 33 paragraph (3) of the 1945 Constitution which reads, the Earth, water and space and natural resources contained therein are controlled by the State and used for the welfare of the people, it is natural that the citizens of Rembang feel disdesahkan and culminate rejection of the construction of cement factory PT Semen Indonesia. Natural resources should be utilized as well as possible for the prosperity of the people rather than bear inequality of interest between factory and farmers. Judging from the previous case case, the mining and construction of the plant in such a way can narrow the agricultural land and then reduce agricultural productivity in the region until the worst part is causing weakness of regional and national food security. Not only the land issue, the construction of the project can also cause environmental damage in the vicinity, disturbance of ecosystem balance, loss of water catchment area, and waste pollution caused by cement production process. Under Law No. 32 Year 2009 on Environmental Protection and Management, it is mentioned that the community has the right and the opportunity to play an active role in the protection and management of the environment, which means that the community has the right to reject all kinds of foreign acts that may endanger their environmental sustainability.
If it is linked to the Basic Agrarian Law (UUPA), it has explained everything about the land including the affirmation that the land of Indonesia is entirely for the prosperity of the nation not for foreign prosperity. The conflict in Rembang shows the negligence and government indifference to the fate of farmers in the area. The Government prevents any efforts in agrarian field from private private monopoly organizations (BAL Article 13).
In response to these conflicts, Komnas HAM since June 2015 has established a Monitoring and Investigation Team for the Compliance of Human Rights in the Area of ??Karst Area. The team led by Commissioner Muh. The Nurkhoiron almost completed his report to be conveyed to the President and related parties, on the preservation of karst ecosystems and the protection of human rights. In the study, it was concluded that Java Island is no longer suitable for mining, because its carrying capacity has been very limited and densely populated. The National Disaster Mitigation Agency (BNPB) has created a Disaster Index in each district / municipality that maps disaster-prone areas in Indonesia, especially in Java, vulnerable by various disasters. Construction of a cement plant accompanied by limestone mining is feared to increase the vulnerability of the disaster.
In addition, there are still weak data on the impact of cement plants on health and livelihoods of the community. In fact, many cement factories have been operating for decades, but the study of their impacts has not yet been comprehensively implemented. Yet in China, hundreds of cement factories have been shut down for being a huge and very serious source of pollutants.
The extent of the Republic of Indonesia with different geographic types in each region, as well as diverse cultures, becomes a separate problem in development, because sometimes a planned program is not in accordance with the conditions of the local community. For that it needs good communication between the community and the government.
According to Everett M. Rogers, Communication is the process by which an idea is transferred from source to a recipient or more, with a view to changing their behavior. Both orally and indirectly through the media (Onong, 2003; 79). Rembang like the explanation above is to have a considerable natural resources. But this is a community dilemma because of the establishment of a cement plant. This is a problem because people reject the establishment. Thus, resulting in conflict between companies, governments and citizens. The existence of conflicts indicates that communication planning is inappropriate. According Hamijoyo (2001), the conflict in communication activities is evidence that there is a communication bottleneck. According Effendy (1990), that one of the communication components that need to be considered for effective communication is the channel or communication media used. The use of communication media will certainly facilitate masyTop down crisis crisis management does not provide opportunities for dialogue between communities, corporations, and governments. Companies that have taken the government through the licenses that have been given then try to continue to maintain its business in order to establish a factory. People who do not have the opportunity to dialogue will certainly provide resistance because it has tried to enter the comfort zone that has been formed for years. The top-down decision-making process by the government as well as the top downs of the permits then gives the impression that there is no longer any effort to dialogue together.
Negative impacts from mining and cement plant establishment.
Impact on water quantity and quality
Water resources can be affected by the development itself. Changes in environmental conditions caused by development can affect water resources both quantitatively and qualitatively. Frequent flood events can not be separated from the impact of land use change. Pollution in river water and groundwater that often happens is also the impact of development as well. Taking into account the hydrological cycle and the changing hydrological process can be assessed the possible negative impacts caused by the development process.
Impact on air,
The Green House Effect is caused by: Changes in Air Condition (climate) due to CO2 and other Greenhouse Gases, Atmospheric Pollution and Damage to the Ozone Layer
Impact on noise
Impacts on noise or impacts on noise levels occurring in the development or project areas surrounding the project have important effects on public health, the livelihoods of people living in livestock, wildlife or disturbances in natural ecosystems. Impact on noise usually occurs at the time the project is being built or when it is running. In the industry, the source of noise can be classified into 3 types, ie
The engine, the noise generated by mesi activity
Vibration, noise caused by vibration caused by friction, collision or imbalance movement of engine parts. Occurs in gears, torque rods, pistons, fans, bearings, and others.
The movement of air, gas and liquid, this noise caused by movement of air, gas, and fluid in industrial work process activities such as gas pipelines, pipe outlets, flue gas, jet, flare boom, and others.
Impacts on weather and climate
The main cause of climate and climate change is the burning of fossil fuels, such as coal, petroleum, and natural gas, which release CO2 and other gases such as CO, N2O, NOx, SO2, other human activities also produce CFCs from AC and gas Aerosols, as well as peat processing activities also produce CH4, which are all known as greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. As the atmosphere gets richer in these greenhouse gases, it becomes an insulator that holds more heat energy reflected off the earth. Construction of glass-walled buildings will also reflect the heat radiation from the sun, so that the area around this building will experience an increase in heat. This will result in a disrupted climate cycle.Impact on land
Soil damage occurs as a result of uncontrolled land exploration and less attention to environmental elements to support the course of development. Development in reality often prioritizes economic value and ignores environmental aspects. Furthermore, development is expansionary, such as in terms of utilization of space / land. In its utilization, it is often an appropriate and balanced land use aspect which is neglected, which in turn will cause a disruption of the stability of natural ecosystems and environmental problems, such as damage and soil contamination.
Conflict and Environmental Damage
(Construction of Cement Plant in Rembang)
Name: Yuliana Rahmatwati
UTS Communications Environment
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