The environment around us is an ecosystem that we must respect each other because human relationships with the environment depend on each other. This is further explained in the Law on Environmental Protection and Management. The environment according to Law No. 32 of 2009 is the unity of space with all things, power, circumstances, and living things, including human beings and their behavior, affecting nature itself, the survival of life, and the welfare of human beings and other living beings (Coordinating Ministry of Field Human and Cultural Development, 2009). The existence of interdependent nature with each other makes humans need a deeper environment. Natural Resources (SDA) is part of the living environment consisting of biological and nonhayati resources and forming ecosystem unity. According Jupri, biological resources is one of the resources that can be recovered (renewable resource) and have life and death. One example of biological resources is the flora and fauna. Non-biological resources are a resource that has no life and death. One example is water, minerals, sulfur, oil, and so on (Jupri, TT).
Non-biological resources sometimes become problems that arise in the community. Environmental conflict occurs because there is no agreement or shared understanding of an environmental issue. This resource will be exhausted if it is continuously used and dredged by the ruling party, both corporate and government. The way to get non-biological resources will also sacrifice biological resources. Biological resources are a resource that will continue to exist because of the regeneration periodically. However, the existing process takes a long time. As in the case of the construction of a cement plant in the Kendeng Mountains, Central Java.
History of the Conflict
The conflicts in the construction of a cement plant in the Kendeng Mountains of Central Java originated from a plan to build a cement plant from PT Semen Indonesia (Persero) in Sukolilo, Pati Utara, Central Java. Villagers of Sukolilo feel that the construction of a cement factory will damage the surrounding environment. Therefore, the people of Sukolilo Village held a demonstration and sued PT Semen Indonesia (Persero) about rejecting the construction of a cement plant. In 2009, Sukolilo villagers won a lawsuit in the Supreme Court (MA) and PT Semen Indonesia (Persero) left the area (Farida, 2014).
In 2009, PT Semen Indonesia (Persero) changed the design of the cement plant construction area to Rembang, Central Java. Precisely in the District Gunem, Kendeng Mountains, Rembang. On October 14, 2010, the local government granted a permit for the construction of a cement plant by issuing a Decree of the Regent No. 545/68/2010 concerning the Mining Permit Territory (WIUP). This decree is followed by the Provision of Exploration Location Permit for the construction of cement plants, raw material mining land, and other supporting facilities with number 591/40/2011 (Kandi, 2016).
In 2014, there was a clash between PT Semen Indonesia (Persero) and Kendeng residents on the agenda of laying the first stone of the cement mine. Kendeng residents said they were not informed of the construction of a cement plant in their village area. Socialization is only done by the relevant regional head without informing the citizens of Kendeng. The AMDAL document is also not submitted to Kendeng residents. Therefore, the negative effects of cement plant construction are not known to the public. The construction of the cement factory also abuses existing regulations,
The use of Watuputih groundwater basin area as lime stone mining area for cement plant raw material violates Regional Regulation of Spatial Planning (RTRW) of Central Java Province Number 6 Year 2010 article 63 which stipulates this area as water protected area and RTRW Regulation of Rembang Regency Number 14 Year 2011 article 19 which defines this area as a geological protected area.
Subsequently, deforestation does not comply with the Forestry Minister's principle of exchange of forest areas, letter No. S. 279 / Menhut-II / 2013 dated April 22, 2013, in which it states that the permitted area for logging is KHP Mantingan forest area the administrative government is located in Kajar Village and Pasucen Village, Gunem District, Rembang Regency, Central Java Province. But the facts on the ground, Cement Indonesia cuts down forest area Kadiwono Bulu district of approximately 21.13 hectares for the plant site. Please note in Local Regulation number 14 of 2011 on RTRW Kabupaten Rembang Bulu District is not intended as a large industrial area (Widianto, 2014).
The resident of Kendeng who refused to build the cement factory sued PT Semen Indonesia (PerFollowing the approval of the Supreme Court, Central Java Governor Ganjar Pranowo issued a new construction permit to PT Semen Indonesia (Persero) saying that environmental permits can be carried out if PT Semen Indonesia (Persero) complies with unmet requirements. This is not the case with the Supreme Court's decision to declare a cancellation of the construction of a cement plant by PT Semen Indonesia (Persero) and there is no order to be repaired. While the improvement and refinement of environmental permits are only listed in the judges' considerations, not the final decision of the Constitutional Court (Erdiyanto, 2017).
The content of the conflict about the construction of a cement factory in the Kendang Mountains often color the Indonesian glass screen, especially on news events. Content presented in the form of demonstration action of Kendeng residents both in Central Java and Jakarta. Kendeng demonstration action conducted by soaking the foot on the cement able to make the people of Indonesia surprised about this issue. This demonstration has also taken its toll. One farmer from Kendang residents died from exhaustion while participating in the demonstration. This certainly shocked many parties, especially the central government. President Joko Widodo also expressed his condolences to the citizens of Kendang and will soon solve this problem completely.
The media plays an important role in this case. Like the Brent Spar case that happened in Britain. In that case, the media is more inclined to support the weaker Greenpeace and tend to blame Shell and the British Government for its decision to throw oil platforms in the depths of the ocean. Media reported more news about environmental conditions in Kendang, environmental impacts that occur due to the construction of a cement factory in Kendang, the efforts of residents Kendang in voicing opinions, and so forth.
Environmental communication according to Robert Cox is communication and human action based on the use of symbols. Symbols such as beliefs, attitudes, behavior, and language. These symbols are believed to be directly related to communication-mediated environmental problems. Environmental communication can also be a space of dialogue from other sciences to achieve a goal of making or changing policies. The existence of public spaces used to express themselves and serve as a place of two-way discussion on environmental issues.
These symbols are also constructive. That is, these symbols are able to create meaning or perception and direct the society to the wider world through mass media. The mass media has an important role according to Cox. Cox said that the mass media helped shape public perceptions of environmental issues. Without the media, the public will not understand and have particular views on environmental issues (Cox, 2010: 20-21).
The role of media has great influence in society. Any news or information to be conveyed is information that has been selected based on a particular point of view. This is called framing. According to Robert Entman in Eriyanto, the concept of framing is used to describe the selection process and highlight certain aspects of reality by the media. Framing is also seen as placing information in a specific context so that certain issues get greater allocation from other issues. Framing emphasizes the text of the information which part will be displayed and highlighted by the text creator. The form of protrusion may vary as it plays one aspect of information more prominently than others, more strikingly, performing repetition of information that is deemed important or associated with familiar cultural aspects in the minds of audiences (Eriyanto, 2002: 186).
The construction of a cement factory in Kendang, Rembang, Central Java caused a prolonged conflict. On the one hand, the Governor of Central Java, Ganjar Pranowo gave permission to build a cement factory that had been decided to be canceled. This creates controversy among the people. On the one hand, there are people who feel disadvantaged by the decision of the Governor of Central Java for not paying attention to the needs and misery of the people. Massive deforestation, water pollution, and no imagination are problems that arise because of the decision. But on the other hand, the community feels the need to create a stable economy in its territory with a large job search field. With the construction of a cement plant, economically, the community becomes more stable than ever.
Opinions from various circles should be able to create a public space to help resolve the conflict. The absence of a fair discussion place makes each party insist on maintaining their own opinions. Can be dilNewscasting in the media also did not escape the important role of framing. By highlighting certain aspects of reality, people felt that the Kendeng people were harmed by this conflict. Reporting on the demonstration of Kendeng farmers leads the public to believe that the environmental impacts of cement plant construction are numerous. The majority of Kendeng community jobs are farmers. Water is a much-needed resource for the life of rice fields. If there is no water to satisfy daily life and irrigation for rice fields then the environmental impact is already very severe. Framing the select media also shows that small groups, weak, and have no place or voice in the media, become a hero for the community. The selection of the frame that is the struggle of Kendeng community against the state-owned giant company finally formed a public perception that PT Semen Indonesia did not pay attention to the environmental impact. The news portion of the conflict is also more Kendeng people than the arguments of the Governor of Central Java and PT Semen Indonesia. The media knows that once the perception of the wider community is formed, the demand for information on the same will increase.
Conclusions and recommendations
The conflicts in the construction of a cement plant in the Kendeng Mountains will drag on in the absence of a public space where two-way discussions are being made on environmental issues. In addition, newscasts on this conflict are closely related to media framing. Framing selected and shaped by the media will lead to public perception of environmental issues. In this case, the framing chosen by the media is the struggle of the Kendeng community against the state-owned company PT Semen Indonesia and the regional government of Central Java Governor. This forms the public perception that the people of Kendeng are harmed. As a result, news of the conflict is growing.
The authors hope that with this analysis the Governor of Central Java can provide an open statement and socialization regarding the decision to renew the permit for the construction of a cement plant. The author also hopes the media can uphold the Journalist Code of Ethics by reporting the news fairly and balanced. The selection of the frame is necessary but must pay attention to other important aspects.