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Does climate change really affect the health sector? Researchers have stated that some of the areas where temperatures warm up have an effect on the development of several disease outbreaks and carrier animals. Some of the events associated with rising temperatures are also linked to climate change.
Several studies have indicated that warmer climates result in a marriage cycle and the growth of mosquitoes from eggs to larvae and adult mosquitoes will be shortened, resulting in faster population growth. Hot and humid air is perfect for malaria mosquitoes (Anopheles), and dengue mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti). In the past, these mosquitoes more often appear in the transition season, between the rainy season and drought. Now hot and humid weather can last all year. So, now the virus that brought Anopheles malaria and dengue virus that brought the Aedes aegypti mosquito can attack at any time.
From Tarakan City's KRAPI (Climate Risk and Adaptation Studies) Study prepared by the Ministry of Environment (KLH) together with Tarakan City Government, it was concluded that the impact of climate change in Tarakan City occurred on the coastal sector, water resources and health. In accordance with one of the identified vulnerable sectors, based on the study of Tarakan City Health Office, Selumit Pantai Village is a red zone of the Aedes aegypti mosquito breed where 92.45% of the total area is not free of larvae. This vulnerability to the source of tropical diseases is also linked to the impacts of climate change. According to the Larva-Free Study (ABJ) collected in mass larvicidal activities (larvicide larva larvae shrinking) in 2013, Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever (DHF) becomes a threat to Tarakan city community.
[caption caption = "Kelurahan Selumit Pantai in Tarakan City is a coastal village that is still not covered by piped water network (ACCCRN program document)"]
Lack of public access to clean water sources also affects the spread of DHF. Its character as a small island town makes the city of Tarakan gets frequent and frequent rain frequencies throughout the year. This makes not a few citizens who took the initiative to put a drum or simple water tank on his home page to substitute the lack of adequate piped water services.
Conditions like this one of them experienced by people who live in Selumit Coast Village in coastal area of ??Tarakan City. Kelurahan Selumit Pantai is one of the problematic villages where 67.66% or 2,087 families (12,525 people) do not have access to clean water PDAM (Data of Health Office of Tarakan City, 2014). Instead, people use rain water as an alternative source of clean water. Almost all residents use open water tanks that are placed both on the lawn and inside the house which is usually directly related to the gutter of water. However, rainwater that is stored in an open tank is easily become a den of Aedes Aegypti mosquito as a transmitter of dengue disease. This is also due to people's reluctance to drain the water as a preventive measure of DHF for fear of not getting enough rain water.
Anti DHD Hat as Water Shelter Cover
Anti DHD hat or commonly known as TAD by local residents is not a head covering tool, but is a water container container cover that will prevent mosquitoes to settle and lay their eggs on the water they are tamping. TAD own name carried by the City Health Office Tarakan to be more easily remembered by the public. TAD is made from small perforated diameter gauze to overcome the fear of the people that they do not get water by closing the water reservoir. Therefore, the TAD is designed with pores that can still hold water when it rains to match the needs of the people there.
The concept of TAD itself was initiated by Ms. Tri Astuti from Tarakan City Health Office. His anxiety over the high case of dengue fever in his city made him look for alternative ideas to support existing DBD prevention programs. Climate change is a trigger for the development of DHF mosquitoes, coupled with the increasing number of people and still many people who inevitably still use the rain water reservoir because the area has not been installed PDAM water pipe network installation. he said.
Tarakan City Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Working Group in cooperation with APEKSI and Mercy Corps Indonesia through the ACCCRN (ACC) program to implement the prevention of DHF vector development with BKM Sejahtera as the implementing partner in the field. Residents in 29 RT Kelurahan Selumit Pantai were trained and assisted to be able to make TAD using a simple sewing machine. Until mid-2015, has produced 3,580 units of TAD installed in the community there.
Residents are very enthusiastic and happy because now the water reservoir so protected from mosquito larvae and at the same time dirt. I am also glad that there is an increased capacity on me that was not able to sew and now can produce TAD itself. There are limitations on the number of sewing machines, so I'm happy if anyone wants to be taught or made TAD for use at home. said Mr. Arif, one of the residents in Selumit Pantai Village.
During this TAD proven to prevent dirt that is rough to get into the water because the gutters and roofs of the house often also be a nest of other animals such as rats. After installation of about 2-3 months, there was an increase of free larva rate (ABJ) from 56.3% to 95%. It is expected that TAD can contribute to the prevention of DHF especially in areas where water difficulty / has not reached the piped water network. With this Anti-Dengue Hat, the community in Selumit Pantai Village, Tarakan City can still utilize rain water and simultaneously encourage efforts to prevent dengue fever. We hope that the whole process and learning during the implementation of the Anti DHF hat project (TAD) can be known and useful for those who want to replicate similar activities, said Ir. Jamaludin (Economic & Development Assistant) representing Mayor of Tarakan appreciates the spirit of its citizens.