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The efforts to develop various facilities of primary and final energy production infrastructure in Indonesia recently, especially those concerning renewable energy, deserve to be welcomed well. The Government through the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources (Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources) continues to make efforts to meet the energy needs (mainly electricity) nationwide.
However, according to the MASKEEI (Society for Conservation and Efficiency of Indonesia) in order to meet the energy needs, which recently increased in line with economic growth and population growth, the government is still focused on strengthening the supply and distribution distribution, demand (demand) or energy use has not received sufficient attention.
In fact, according to various studies, the economic potential in the field of energy efficiency and conservation reportedly reaches 5-6 billion US dollars per year (MASKEEI data).
These potentials include the value of energy savings and the value of investments that need to be made to build and implement energy-saving technologies. According to various data collected by the same organization, Indonesia's potential efficiency in saving potential is 15 – 17%, which by 2025 is estimated to be around USD 6 billion per year (Asian Development Bank study, 2013).
Therefore, the government needs to step up its efficiency and conservation efforts actively and structurally, in addition to continuously searching for new energy sources and utilizing the abundant and underutilized sources of renewable energy in Indonesia.
It is necessary to help efforts to achieve national energy security in the future, which is to anticipate the economic growth is quite high at the level of 5 – 7% per year.
For example, one price fuel policy and equitable access to national electrical energy on the one hand is a good effort to improve the welfare of the people and create hope of healthy economic growth. Nevertheless, on the other hand if only supply is added in the supply-fulfillment effort, without serious effort to control energy consumption, the potential problems arising from the surge in energy demand could result in the government having to invest relatively large to meet the energy needs in Indonesia.
The government has actually realized the importance of managing on the energy demand side. Law No.30 / 2017 on energy and Government Regulation no. 70/2009 which became the basis of national energy policy. However, according to MASKEEI, the regulation based on the implementation of the policy has not been done optimally and consistently, including pricing policies, incentives, and disincentives for energy saving efforts undertaken by the community, especially in the real sector.
One simple example for consumer society, savings can be made by replacing conventional incandescent bulbs with CFL or LED lamps. The price of CFL lights is affordable enough, but the price of LED lamps (more efficient and able to survive 5-10 years) seems still quite expensive, although recently the price of LED lights have started to vary, from cheap to expensive producer price and quality respectively). Unfortunately, until now most LED lights are still imported products from other countries, mainly from China.
In addition, has begun to circulate energy-efficient technologies aimed at streamlining the use of electrical energy in households, industries, and commercial buildings. A number of product palettes are offered such as Smart Home, Smart Office, Smart Building, etc. It's just that the fee to be paid is also not small.
While these solutions are still not reachable by the general public in Indonesia, at least they provide an opportunity for energy users to make savings, which in turn will reduce the burden of monthly routine spending.Beyond that, global pressures related to mitigating climate change impacts as agreed in Paris by the end of 2015 also have an effect. The government and the public need to start saving energy in the transportation sector, which as a whole is a large energy user (about 40% by MASKEEI) of total national energy consumption.
With the continuous development of energy and transportation technologies, there are a number of alternative options that can be taken, for example replacing diesel oil with bio-diesel (renewable energy), in addition to the development of transportation (especially for public transportation) powered electric. Unfortunately, the latter seems to be getting less attention, at least when looking at the development of news related to it (may be being prepared).