After America is populated by Indian tribes who become indigenous Americans, gradually many people who came to America such as Europeans. The first Europeans to come to America were Norwegians (Norse). They settled in northern Newfoundland. While the British nation led by John Cabot who became a messenger of the King of England arrived in Newfoundland. Meanwhile, the Portuguese landed at George's Bank.
The reason Europeans came to America for several reasons. First the political factor, the immigrants fled to America because of political oppression in their home country. The second factor is religion, the immigrants want to seek freedom to worship in America. The third factor is the economy, the immigrants want to look for better luck than in their home country. Because at that time in Europe was undergoing Industrial Revolution, so banayk farmers who lost their jobs.
The Europeans who came to America or the "New World" established colonies. Colonies are places controlled by certain groups, where they build government and society. There are at least 13 colonies established by Europeans, including:
1. Jamestown / Virginia.
3. Rhode Island.
7. New Haven.
8. New Jersey.9. Pennsylvania.
11. New York.
Some Early Colonies.
1. Jamestown / Virginia.
The Jamestown / Virginia colony is the first established colony in America. The colony that was a gift from King James I was given to Virginia (London) n Company. The colony was led by John Smith. After his departure to England, this colony became chaotic including the economy. Then in 1612, John Rolfe crossed the tobacco seeds with native American shrubs and produced a new kind that suited the tastes of the Europeans. Thus, tobacco is the largest source of income in Virginia.
The Massachusetts colony was founded by the Puritans of England. They wanted to change the ways of worship and church organization in Britain that referred to Roman Catholicism to simpler Protestant Christianity. But they are even considered threatening religion and British society. Finally, they moved to Leiden, the Netherlands to get asylum. However, their existence is exploited by Calvinists who make them rough workers with low wages. Being discriminated against, they moved to the "New World".
The Puritans from the Netherlands sailed to America on the Mayflower. They landed in New England, because they felt they were outside the power of any government in the end they chose their own leaders for the group. Furthermore, the leadership will make a formal agreement in accordance with "fair and equitable law". This agreement is called Mayflower Compact.In addition to the Puritans of the Netherlands, there are other immigrants namely the Pilgrims (pilgrims). They also use Mayflower ships. Then they reached the port of Plymouth.
The next wave of immigrants came from the British Puritans led by John Winthrop. They want to establish "a city on the hill" or "the city upon the hill" in the New World. They will live there with strict rules that match their beliefs and religions.
The Puritan law is stodgy and rigid, this creates opposition within the colony. Some who disagree with this law choose to leave the colony. For example, Rogers Williams and Orthodox Puritans.
Williams is a young pastor, he moved to an area now called Providence, Rhode Island. In the region he built a first American colony that completely separated the church from the state. So there is religious freedom in this colony.
While the Orthodox Puritans, mostly farmers, moved into the fertile area of ??the Connecticut River Valley. They do not hesitate to compete with the Indians for the fertile land. To join this colony, they did not require church membership. So more and more people are moving to the colony.
3. New Netherland.
The Dutch voyage to the New World has a primary purpose for the trade of fur. Then the Dutch began to inhabit the area of ??Manhattan Island which became known as New Amsterdam. In addition they also live in kawsan which is now named New York City. The Dutch applying the feudal system to attract migrants to the New York area, this system is called the patron system.
In a patron system, any shareholder or patron capable of carrying 50 adults to his land for four years, they will get 25 kilometers of land on the riverbank. Then he will get exclusive rights to fishing and hunting, as well as the civil and criminal law powers in his land. As a reward, patrons must provide livestock, carpentry and buildings. Tenants must pay rent and give first choice to patron to buy excess crop.
The Calvert family got the charter from King Charles I. The charter gave them power to an area just north of the Potomac River, now Maryland. They were Catholic believers, because there was no prohibition to establish a Catholic church, they finally established the church and encouraged Catholics to live there. The Charter of the Calvert Family is feudal and modern. They have the power to build plantation lands, on the other hand they are allowed to make the rules with the consent of the property owner.
Second Generation Colony.In the 17th century England experienced religious and social conflicts, so the attention of the British government to its colonies in America was reduced. This prompted some British colonies to form the New England Confederacy, they include: the colonies of Massachusetts Bay, Plymouth, Connecticut, and New Haven. The purpose of establishing the confederation is for the defense and unity of the colony.
After the British condition improved, the British government again paid attention to its colonies in America. Thus encouraging new colonies to emerge. For example in Carolina, New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania. In addition the English began to enter the territory of the Dutch colonies in Long Island and Manhattan. Because the Dutch colony's defense was not strong, the New netherland fell into British hands.
The construction of the colonies was based on several factors, for example by religious factors. The Massachusetts Bay colony and the Pennsylvania colony are examples of colonies formed by religious factors. Pennsylvania was founded by William Penn. He was a Quaker who received a land grant from King Charles II. The land is west of the Delaware River, now it is known as Pennsylvania. Then Penn recruited people who were separated from official churches in England, such as Quaker, Mennonite, Amish, Moravian and Baptist.
Other factors such as brotherhood also encourage the formation of a colony, such as Philadelpia which is located adjacent to Pennsylvania. Philadelpia is populated by Dutch, Swedish and English people. So the colony is known as the "City of Brotherhood".
The last colony established was Georgia. The colony is inhabited by the poor and former inmates who are given new opportunities to earn a better life in the New World.