Farmers Seed Bank

Farmers Seed BankSeeds are one of the important pillars in food sovereignty discourse and become the agent of change factor in agriculture. As one of the main determinants of success in increasing agricultural production, seeds must have characteristics that are certified superior varieties and meet the exact 6 standards of precise varieties, quality, time, place, quantity and price.

However, it must be admitted that there are still many obstacles in fulfilling this kind of seed needs optimally, from the aspect of the accuracy of variety, quality, quantity, time, location and price. On the other hand, the increasing number of foreign product seeds used by some farmers will be less ideal for self-reliance and improving the welfare of farmers.

The emergence of a strategy to integrate two existing seed systems – formal (certified and informal seed sources) and informal sources (the source of uncertified seeds) may be a first step for how to overcome these seed problems in Indonesia. Such integration is known as the controlled Jabalsim system developed from the jabalsim system.

Jabalsim or inter-field paths between seasons is a current that farmers have long used to meet their seed needs either from their own harvest in previous seasons, from other farmers inside or outside the region, or buy to traders of crops that get the seeds from other regions in the previous season. The development of jabalsim to controlled jabalsim is due to quality control so that the seeds sold have the certificate issued by the authorized person.

Both controlled jabalsim and jabalsim are closely related to the existence of several types of seed banks such as real seed banks (de facto) and community seed exchange. The real seed bank (de facto) is all the existing seed storage in the community that has existed for a long time, operates informally and consists of self-storage, multiplying the seeds of superior and local varieties and stored in each household .

Whereas the community seed exchange is an organized exchange of some seeds stored from de facto banks, operates semi-formally and consists of individual storage for both local and superior varietal seeds.

As some of the farmers in the village of Gubug Subdistrict Awareness Grobogan district where the habit of saving seeds and borrows of seeds that can then be called a seed bank, has lasted long enough. Seeds are usually in the form of seeds produced from the selection process of the plant that has a physical appearance (fruit / seed) is considered the best during the cultivation process of plants, to then taken the seeds and stored for the purpose of seed as the next planting season.

Mas Nyamin (30 years) for example, one of the farmers in this village who are still doing seeds to be used in the process of farming activities especially on leguminosae (nuts) and not infrequently the seeds that he kept lent (nyilehi wineh) to neighbors and relatives which is in need, to then by neighbors and relatives returned in the form of seed again.

Similarly, Mr. Mono (40 years old) Mr. Windi (40) who talked about various types of seeds that are usually stored by farmers in this village are corn, rice, tolo (tunggak), long beans, green beans, soybeans, peanuts. However, since the presence of hybrid seeds are widely circulated and ditaman by farmers, little by little seed saving activities by farmers from the cultivation itself began to decrease.

In general, the use of hybrid seeds usually obtained by buying in a saprotan kiosk has an advantage, especially in the aspect of performance (appearance of the plant) is much better (nyenengke) than if using their own seeds such as corn seeds. Seems to have been dependent on this type of hybrid corn seeds so that the farmers feel often receive the price of seeds from unrealistic saprotan kiosks "mosok regone corn semono – mono wae instead kaporo midun continue.Regos wineh lapalike, mundak continue nak nyedaki season thrust, durable suwidak ewu iso nganti press satus limo "(ripe corn prices so much that it just tends to go down) Seed price kok on the contrary, go up especially during planting season from Rp 60.000 to Rp 105.000).

The reality experienced by Mrs. Nyamin, Mr. Mono and Mr. Windi is a real example of how there are still many seeds in Indonesia especially in the aspect of price precision to look for solution. And maybe if dug further will be encountered many aspects of other aspects that have not been appropriate such as appropriate varieties. Many containersPerhaps it is time to utilize this kind of farmers' seed banks optimally, in addition to addressing various problems related to seeding at farmers level, such as the unmet demand for seeds (varieties, quality, quantity, time, location, price). Will also be able to overcome the dependence of farmers on the seed products of foreign companies.

The use of this kind of farmers' seed banks will also be able to become a roadmap in developing the knowledge, innovation and culture of production in farming because in fact traditional farmers have a strong indigenous knowledges based on their practical experience and local wisdom. On the other hand, the juridical recognition of this informal seed system by the state through the decision of Court No.99 / PUU-X / 2012 which cancel Article 5.6,9, 12, and 60 Act No. 12/1992 on Plant Cultivation System the government is obliged to provide guidance through various policies including developing seed banks at farmers' level like this.

As a result, there is still a need of various processes for how to achieve the purpose of utilization of seed banks so that they can more significantly affect the independence or increase the welfare of farmers. However, this process will require more willingness than the ability of the stakeholders (stake holder) in realizing the independence and welfare of farmers both government, researchers and institutions other institutions.

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