Flood and Future of Islands Watershed

Flood and Future of Islands WatershedFLOOD AND THE FUTURE OF THE ISLANDS ISLAND [1]

By: Muh. Arbain Mahmud [2]

This paper was made as an appreciation of invitation of fellow journalist Mongabay.co.id for a celebration of discussion as well as open together themed: 'Let Bacarita Environment (Islands watershed from reclamation to trash)', Sunday, June 18, 2017 at Cafe Istana, Ternate. Pun as an effort to find solutions ecological disaster that occurred in the Province of North Maluku (Malut).


Watershed issues become part of the national development policy especially since the Forestry Act (UU No. 41/1999), Environmental Protection and Management Act (UU No. 32/2009), as well as the Law on Soil and Water Conservation (Law No. 37/2014). This issue is more massive and a cross-cutting policy since the issuance of Government Regulation (PP) No. 37 of 2012 on Watershed Management.

According to PP 37/2012, DAS is defined as a region separated from other regions by natural separators such as ridges or mountains, which receive rainwater, accommodate and drain through the main river to the sea / lake. Therefore, all land areas on this earth are actually divided up by the watershed. The watershed classification is divided into 2 (two), ie, the restored basin and retained watershed (Article 12). The determination of the watershed classification is based on several criteria, such as: land conditions, water quality-quantity, socio-economic, water-building investment and spatial use.

A glimpse of the watershed in Malut has been featured in mass media four years ago including the writer's writings entitled 'Quo Vadis DAS Moloku Kie Raha' (Malut Post, December 10, 2013). In general, the issue of the North Maluku watershed is summarized in the author's book entitled 'Moloku Ecology of Kie Raha, The Idea of ??Ecosystems Control of North Maluku's Forest' (The Phinisi Press, 2015).

North Maluku Province has 1,069 watersheds with a total area of ??3,150,964.21 ha with varying degrees of criticality, from somewhat critical to very critical (BPDASHL Ake Malamo, 2013). Speaking of watershed characteristics in Malut or Moloku Kie Raha watershed is 'Islands watershed' as a combined large island watershed (Halmahera) and adjacent small and medium islands (Obi, Bacan, Sulabesi, Ternate, Tidore, etc.). The islands arelands of different characters with DASs on the major islands of the archipelago, which are relatively one stretch, such as Kalimantan, Sumatra, Papua, Java and Sulawesi.

The terminology of the 'Islands Basin' itself does not exist in the rule of law because it is merely a term spirit to describe the exotic watersheds in Malut and some other archipelago archipelago areas, such as Riau Islands, Bangka Belitung and Maluku. The Moloku Kie Rahasebagai 'DAS Islands' watershed is formed by several island watersheds where the environmental components such as climate, water, soil, topography, rocks, flora / fauna, land use, and humans form the "natural ecosystem" of each specific island watershed also, both the big island and the surrounding small islands (Malut Post, December 10, 2013).

The potentials and problems of each watershed are different, such as the DAS on Halmahera Island which is rich in mineral resources, indigenous peoples, biodiversity (flora-fauna) and rivers that flow throughout the year. This watershed condition in Halmahera is different from the watersheds in Ternate and Tidore Islands, some of the rivers are tombs (dead), volcanic threats and socio-cultural conditions are relatively compound. Also different from the watershed conditions in other islands at the end of this cluster peninsula, such as Morotai, Sulabesi, Mangole and Taliabu.

FLOOD: PHENOMENA DAMAGE OF THE ISLANDS ISLANDSTalk of the damages of the watershed of the Islands, especially the Moloku Kie Raha watershed, can be seen from the occurrence of natural disasters in the region of Malut some time ago. The destruction of upstream watershed areas as a catchment area is thought to be one of the main causes of natural disasters. Additionally, silting of streams and water pollution is increasing from upstream watersheds (one of which is due to mining activities), central and downstream watersheds (resulting from residential waste) leads to increasingly limited availability of clean water.

One consequence of watershed damage is flooding – landslides. According to data BPDASHL Ake Malamo (2017), in the range of half windu (2013-2016) North Maluku has 96 incidents of floods and landslides. In 2016, at least three major flood events were reviewed by BPDASHL Ake Malamo through the analysis of Standard Operating Procedures System (SSOP), ie in Tobelo – North Halmahera (21 June), Trans Kobe – Central Halmahera (21 July), and Obi – Halmahera South (5 December). In the event of floods in Trans Kobe and Obi, the authors were directly involved in surveys and field analyzes. Overview of flood analysis Obi has also been a writer in the media ('Obi Flood Puzzle', Malut Post, December 21, 2016).

Floods in Tobelo occur in the villages of Wosia and Mahia (Central Tobelo sub-district). The flood was not caused by the characteristic biophysical factors of the Ake Kwekao watersheds such as slope conditions, land cover, soil infiltration and surface pile (flow pattern) as the flood-prone areas. However, the trigger factor is the rainfall flooding for 2 (two) hours along with the occurrence of sea tide so that the flow from the river into the sea becomes obstructed. Also the factors of the narrowness of the width of the river downstream due to household waste piles, fish waste waste originating from the place of fish auction (TPI) is right at the mouth of the river and shrubs that almost close the surface of the river. Based on data of SWOP Flood Landslide BPDASHL Ake Malamo, Wosia and Mahia Villages are not included in flood prone areas.

Trans Kobe floods occur in the villages of Woejrana, Woekop, Kulojaya, Lukolama (Vedas district) in Ake Kobe watershed. The dominant factor triggers the flood of transmigration sites in the form of very high rainfall with long duration (04.30 – 18.00 WIT). The parallel flow pattern and the collapse of river dikes, the siltation of the river around the settlement and the relatively flat topography (<1%) accelerate the flooding of the area by the overflow of river water. Based on SSOP Flood Landslide data BPDASHL Ake Malamo, the location is particularly area of ??Desa Lukolamo, Woekop and Woejrana including flood-prone areas.

Obi floods occur in Laiwui Village, Buton Village and Kampung Baru (South Obi district), in Ake Jikotamo watershed. Obi floods, including flash flood category, are flooding due to runoff outflow of river flow because the enlarged river flows suddenly exceed the flow capacity, occur rapidly hit the low surface areas of the earth, in the valleys of rivers and basins, and usually carry debris in the flow. Debris or riparian rock stream is a type of mass movement flow of rombakan material with a very large, coarse, non-cohesive coarse, consisting of small to large grained materials such as sand, gravel, small rocks and large stones (Malut Post, December 21, 2016).

Seeing the phenomenon of the flood, plus a series of floods and landslides this June in West Halmahera, Sula Islands, South Halmahera and Ternate (Malut Post, 5-6 June 2017), it can be said that the Moloku Islands watershed Kie Raha is on the brink of destruction.


The true flood phenomenon is the easiest illustration to illustrate the damage of the Moloku Islands watershed Kie Rahakarena to various factors. According to Chow (1964), floods are caused by natural factors (60%) and land management / land use factors (40%). Natural factors include the shape of the land, the percentage of the right slopes – the left of the river, the damming by the river branching and the length of the river according to the turn rather than the straight distance.

However, according to the authors, the management factor is more affected by the damage caused by human intervention. This concerns between the state's political policy (local government), socio-cultural behavior, to the business of the corporate / private economy. In political policy, especially the local government, some North Maluku leaders ignore the 'eco-politics policy', an environmental politics that generates pro-people and pro-environment policies based on beliefs as servants of God ('Abdullah) and' earth guardian 'missionaries (khalifah fil' ardhi).

The number of companies holding license of forest use permit / IPPKH (33 companies), most of which are still absent in carrying out their obligations, can not be separated from the impact of 'malpractice' of local government policy. In addition, the permissions onEconomic / private business actors become one of the 'suspects' of DAS destruction. According to BPDASHL Ake Malamo (2017) data, there are 25 IPPKH holders who have not yet implemented the DAS of Rehabilitation (Malut Post, 01 April 2017). Some tourism companies / hotels in Ternate are still many who take surface water as the fulfillment of raw water needs and do not yet have a sewage treatment facility.

Finally, if associated with other natural phenomena, such as global warming, flooding as an element of the phenomenon of the destruction of the watershed will be dramatic if interpreted as a pre-condition of the Last Day (end of all life on earth), as implied in the teachings of Islam, " doomsday will be a change of form, earth drowning, and rain stones … "(HR Tirmidhi). You know!


Abu Fatiah Al-Adnani, 2008. Global Warming, A Close Cue of the End Times and Destruction of the World, Surakarta: Granada Mediatama.

Chow, V.T., 1964. Handbook of Applied Hydrology. McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York.

Muh. Arba'in Mahmud, 2015. Moloku Ecology of Kie Raha, The Idea of ??Forest Ecosystem Control of North Maluku, Jogjakarta: The Phinisi Press.

Malut Post, December 10, 2013

Malut Post, December 21, 2016

Malut Post, April 01, 2017

Malut Post, 5-6 June 2017

[1] Ever sent to Mongabay.com editor (via North Maluku correspondent / mongabay.co.id member) and has not been published.[2] PED Young BPDASHL Ake Malamo (LHK Ministry) – Secretary of the Moloku Kie Raha Watershed Coordination Forum / Management of Gamalama Watershed Coordination Forum

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