Image source: http://ecosafariindonesia.com/files/2016/06/TNTP-1.jpg
All human beings on earth can not be separated from nature and environment, so the people of Indonesia can not be separated from nature and environment. This statement is a reality, that humans can not escape from the dependency relationship to seek the balance of ecosystem.Alam and the environment and Natural Resources if not utilized properly, it will bring richer, both biological natural resources and non-biological natural resources.
The country of Indonesia has abundant natural resources, so the State of Indonesia is known as megabiodiversity country, the second most in the world.
Indonesia's tropical rainforests have oil, natural gas, gold, copper and other mineral deposits.
Without us realizing that we Indonesian society occupies almost 1.3 percent of the earth's territory. Of all species of plants and flowers in the world, 10% are in Indonesia, 12% of mammals, 17% of bird species, 16% of all reptile and amphibian species, and the remaining 10% of the world's second largest tropical forest area after Brazil .
The archipelagic state that stretches from Sabang to Merauke, with its 17,000 islands, is the habitat of flora and fauna of two different types of origin. In the west is the Indo-Malaya region, and in the East is the Fasifik and Australia.
Indonesia's tropical rain forest, in addition to its rich biodiversity, also includes the richest ecosystem in the world, with wildlife in it. Tropical rain forests in Indonesia are estimated at 1,148,400 km2. The richest forests of palm species (447 species, 225 in the rest of the world), approximately 400 dipterocarp species (the most valuable timber species in Southeast Asia).
.Forests as an ecosystem not only store natural resources in the form of timber, but still a lot of non-timber potentials that can be benefited by the community through cultivation of agricultural crops on forest land. As a function of the forest ecosystem, it plays an important role in many things such as water supply providers, oxygen producers, living places of flora and fauna, and environmental balancing roles, as well as preventing global warming. As a function of water providers for forest life is one of the most important areas, this is because the forest is the place to grow millions of plants.
National Park (Most Indonesian)
National park is one of nature conservation / conservation area in Indonesia besides protected forest, nature reserve, nature reserve, wildlife reserve, forest park and nature park. National parks are established because they have certain species, or ecosystems, or uniqueness and natural beauty, which the pelrlu is protected because of its distinctive character on a national scale. Within the management, the area is divided into three management zones: a tightly controlled core zone (limited for monitoring and monitoring only), the jungle zone, with the management and provision of its perfunctory infrastructure; as well as intensive use zones. In UN No.5 of 1990 article 1 point 14 it is explained that: National Park is a natural conservation area that has original ecosystem, managed by zoning system which is utilized for research, science, education, cultivation, tourism, and recreation.
From the data obtained from the Ministry of Forestry's website, Indonesia has 50 National Parks:
National Park on the island of Sumatra
Bukit TigapuluhBukit Duabelas
Bukit Barisan Selatan
National Park in Java Island
Kepulauan SeribuMount Halimun
Gunung Gede Pangrango
Bromo Tengger Semeru
.National Parks in Bali and Nusa Tenggara
Mount Rinjani Komodo
Manupeu Tanah Daru
National Park on Borneo Island
Betung KerihunBukit Baka-Bukit Raya
National Park on the island of Sulawesi
Bogani Nani Wartabone
Taka BonerateRawa Aopa Watumohai
National Parks in Maluku and Papua
Bay of Cendrawasih
WasurMore encouragingly, that 3 of the National Parks, and the Sumatra Trpois Rain Forests, belong to a world heritage recognized by UNESCO, the UN body of the world:
1. Komodo National Park
Komodo National Park consists of three large islands of Komodo Island, Rinca island and Padar island and 26 other large / small islands. A total of 11 mountains / hills in the Komodo National Park with the highest peak is Mount Satalibo (735 meters above sea level). The land area of ??this national park is 603 km and the total area is 1817 km.
The dry and arid nature makes it unique. The existence of vast savanna fields, limited water sources and moderately hot temperatures; it is a habitat favored by a kind of ancient animal Komodo (Varanus komodoensis). Most of this national park is a savanna with palm trees (Borassus flabellifer) the most dominant and distinctive. Some plants in Komodo National Park include rattan (Calamus sp.), Bamboo (Bambusa sp.), Acid (Tamarindus indica), kepuh (Sterculia foetida), bidara (Ziziphus jujuba), and mangroves (Rhizophora sp.)
In addition to Komodo dragons, there are deer (Cervus timorensis floresiensis), wild boar (Sus scrofa), ajag (Cuon alpinus javanicus), wild horses (Equus qaballus), wild buffalo (Bubalus bubalis); 2 types of turtles, 10 species of dolphins, 6 types of whales and dugongs are often seen in the marine waters of Komodo National Park
2. Ujung Kulon National Park
Ujung Kulon National Park is representative of the remaining and largest remaining lowland tropical rain forest ecosystem in West Java, and is an ideal habitat for the survival of endangered rhinoceros (Rhinoceros sondaicus) and other endangered species. There are three types of ecosystems in this national park are marine ecosystems, swamp ecosystems, and terrestrial ecosystems..
The growing diversity of animals and animals in Ujung Kulon National Park became known by researchers, Dutch and British botanists since 1820. Approximately 700 species of plants are well protected and 57 species of which are rare such as; merbau (Intsia bijuga), palahlar (Dipterocarpus haseltii), bungur (Lagerstroemia speciosa), cerlang (Pterospermum diversifolium), rain ki (Engelhardia serrata) and various kinds of orchids. . Wildlife in Ujung Kulon National Park consists of 35 species of mammals, 5 species of primates, 59 species of reptiles, 22 species of amphibians, 240 species of birds, 72 species of insects, 142 species of fish and 33 species of coral reefs. Endangered and protected animals other than Javan rhinoceros are bull (Bos javanicus javanicus), ajag (Cuon alpinus javanicus), surili (Presbytis comata comata), langur (Trachypithecus auratus auratus), deer (Cervus timorensis russa), leopard (Panthera pardus) stone cat (Prionailurus bengalensis javanensis), owa (Hylobates moloch), and giant clam (Tridacna gigas).
3. Lorentz National Park
Lorentz National Park is representative of the most comprehensive ecosystem for biodiversity in Southeast Asia and the Pacific. This area is also one of the three regions in the world that have glaciers in the tropics. It stretches from a snow-covered mountain peak (5,030 meters above sea level), until it stretches into coastal waters with mangrove forests and borders of the Arafura Sea waters. In this expanse, there is an amazing ecological spectrum of alpine, sub-alpine, montane, sub-montane, lowland, and wetland areas
The types of plants in this national park include nipah (Nypa fruticans), mangroves (Rhizophora apiculata), Pandanus julianettii, Colocasia esculenta, Avicennia marina, Podocarpus pilgeri, and Nauclea coadunata.
Types of animals identified in Lorentz National Park are 630 species of birds (70% of birds in Papua) and 123 species of mammals. Types of birds that characterize this national park there are two types of cassowary, four megapoda, 31 types of doves / pigeons, 30 species of cockatoos, 13 species of birds, 29 species of birds honey, and 20 species endemic of long-tailed paradise (Paradigalla caruneulata) and quail snow (Anurophasis monorthonyx).
Mammal animals recorded include long-spiked pig (Zaglossus bruijnii), short-spouted pig (Tachyglossus aculeatus), 4 species of cuscus, wallabies, forest cats, and tree kangaroos..
4. Tropical Rain Forest Sumatra
The tropical rain forest of Sumatra is home to various living things. Many of them are endangered species of animals, such as the Sumatran orangutan, Sumatran tiger, Sumatran rabbit, and Sumatran rhinoceros. In this tropical rainforest also grows a variety of endemic plants, such as the semar bag, the largest flower in the world of Rafflesia, and the highest interest Amorphophallus.
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These forests are home to millions of jungle people. To survive they depend on the forest both physically and spiritually. These forests are also home to two-thirds of the world's plant and animal species. Which means hundreds of thousands of different plant and tree types and millions of insects, their future also depends on the forest.
MARI SAVE FORESTS!
Notes: adapted from various sources