Forest Degradation in Kalimantan

Forest Degradation in KalimantanBy: Atep Afia Hidayat – Kalimantan covers four provinces namely West Kalimantan Kalbar), Central Kalimantan (Kalteng), South Kalimantan (Kalimantan) and East Kalimantan (East Kalimantan), covering an area of ??587,013 km2. In 1971 the population was only 5.2 million people, in 1980 to 6.7 million people, in 1990 to 9.1 million people, then in 2010 to 13.8 million people. Population growth rate (LPP) between 1971-1980 reached 3.04 percent per year, and between 1980-1990 to 3.23 percent per year. While the rate of population growth between 1990-2010 still exceeded 2.5 percent. That number exceeds the national average. The high LPP is mainly due to the large number of migrants, especially transmigration. Thus the number of population density (density) continues to increase, if at 1971 only 10 people per km2, in 1980 to 12 souls per km2, 1990 reached 17 people per km2, and in 2010 exceeded 23 people per km2. As in other islands, the population spread in Kalimantan is not evenly distributed, the most densely populated area is the city of Banjarmasin reaching 8,606 people per km2. Approximately 17.25 percent of the population of South Kalimantan settled in Banjarmasin. Some other densely populated areas are Pontianak City, Samarinda, Balikpapan, Kotabaru and Tanah Laut Regencies. Along with the growing population, the pressure on the environment is increasing, especially for the forest. It can be said, the higher the LPP the higher the rate of deforestation (deforestation). According to Goeltenboth (1992), the destruction of tropical forests could initially be caused by many things, such as population growth, poverty, foreign debt problems and adverse economic conditions. But for the most part the main cause is the expansion of agricultural land and plantations, the construction of large private projects, and the over-exploitation of timber resources. While concerning indigenous people mentioned, that for centuries, indigenous people in using forests without destroying the balance of the ecosystem. It can be said that the main cause of forest destruction is due to the greed of some migrants in exploiting the environment. It is estimated that deforestation takes place at a rate of about 1 percent per year, or about 20-40 hectares of forest lost every minute. The existence of tropical forests, including forests in Kalimantan, is threatened by two activities, first selective logging, primarily to provide timber industry raw materials (Logs, sawn wood, palywood); secondly the logging of entire area, whether for slash-and-burn agriculture or cultivation, opening plantation, livestock, mining or wood industry. According to Wana Khatulistiwa (1992), the two main causes of forest destruction, if not immediately controlled and improved anticipation scenario, by many people feared will exacerbate the rate of deforestation that has been going on. In the long term, forest destruction will negatively affect wildlife, global and local economies, the quality of life of forest and climate communities. However, the rate of deforestation must be controlled, especially if Kalimantan's forests are ecologically and economically one of the most important in the world. The Borneo forest contains thousands of species of birds, reptiles and amphibians. It is also a "genetic bank" for plant breeding, as well as many medicinal and floriculture plants such as orchids. In addition to wood, the forests of Borneo also produce tengkawang, resin, bamboo, eucalyptus oil, turpentine, gondorukem, rattan, shingle, charcoal, honey, and so on. The ecological function of forests is related to issues of global warming and the leaking of the ozone layer. However, forests in Kalimantan contributed little to the balance of the Kalimantan ecosystem. Such as protecting watersheds, balancing various nutrient cycles and hydrologic cycles, carbon sources, reducing air pollution and affecting microclimate. It is appropriate in cities that have industrial units such as Bontang, Balikpapan, Banjarmasin, etc. provided a special area for urban forest. According to the FAO report of 1989, the rate of forest destruction in Kalimantan reaches more than 600 thousand hectares per year, and is the highest compared to other islands in Indonesia. This of course should be underlined, do not let the rate of damage is more uncontrolled. Meanwhile, according to Save Our Borneo (SOB), an environmental NGO (LSM) concerning the environment, around June 2008 revealed about 80 percent of forest damages occurring in Kalimantan due to the expansion of palm oil by large companies. Approximately 20 percent due to mining and transmigration areas. SOB also revealed, based on the prediction of 10-year trend, from the area of ??Kalimantan which reached 59 million hectares,

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