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One of the advantages of Biofuel energy is air pollution to be minimal or nonexistent. Many countries in Europe, the US and Brazil have successfully utilized Biofuel energy for machinery and motor vehicles as a result of efforts to reduce global warming and air pollution.
In Indonesia, although the potential of Biofuel is abundant but has not been cultivated maximally because the energy supply from oil and gas is still sufficient. One consequence is air pollution is still high. The contribution of CO2 emissions to global warming due to the use of fossil fuels is still quite high. Utilization of biofuels around us alone keeps a long story.
Bifuel Materials and Its Utilization
Theoretically meant by biological fuel is the liquid fuel, solids and gases produced by organic materials. Biodiesel can be directly produced by plants and indirectly by industrial waste both commercial industrial waste, domestic industrial waste and agricultural industry waste. Unconsciously, the biodiesel-forming materials around us accumulate. If managed well it will make an important contribution to the future of free energy supply of pollution and free of global warming.
There are three ways to make Biofuel:
1. Burning for dry organic waste (such as household waste, industrial and agricultural waste);
2. Fermentation for wet waste (such as animal waste) without oxygen to produce Biogas (containing up to 60% of methane gas), or fermentation of sugarcane and corn to produce Alcohol and Ether
3. Direct energy from the forest. Generally produced dry wood from a variety of fast growing plants as fuel. Essentially, firewood is a very easy material to be gained in Indonesia and NTT in particular that has long been used as a source of energy for cooking.
In addition to the wood, the waste of animal waste is quite abundantly available in various animal dung enclosures such as; cows, pigs, horses, chickens and goats that continue to increase with the mass cultivation of these animals. The manure is used as a source of energy that is processed by fermentation.
Furthermore, the process of fermentation of animal waste results in two types of biofuel: alcohol and ester. These materials can theoretically be used to replace fossil fuels but need to sometimes require major changes to the engine system. To be useful so oil for vehicles, biofuels are usually mixed with fossil fuels.
Biofuels offer the possibility of producing energy without increasing the levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere because the various plants used to produce Biofuels reduce the levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere. Biofiels are not like the common fossil fuels that return carbon dioxide (CO2) stored beneath the soil surface for millions of years into the air. With so biofuels are more carbon neutral and slightly increase the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, in addition Biofuel reduces dependence on petroleum and to improve energy security.For Liquid Fuel
Transportation and machinery require liquid fuel because vehicles and machines typically require high energy densities. Vehicles typically require high power densities that can be provided by internal combustion engines.
The machines require fuel for a clean burning process. Fuel must maintain engine cleanliness and minimize air pollution. Fuel that is easier to burn cleanly is usually liquid and gas. Thus the liquid (as well as the gases that can be stored in liquid form) meets the requirements of a portable and clean burning. In addition fluids and gases can be pumped, which means that the handling is easily mechanized and does not require much energy. So liquid fuels can be processed from biological fuels that are usually free of air pollution.
Better solutions to improve public and government support for countries and industries for the acceleration and implementation of Biofuels can be taken from a number of plants not used for human and animal consumption, including cellulosic biofuel, biomass waste, wheat stalks, corn, wood , and a variety of special biomass or energy plants (eg Miscanthus). Biofuels use biomass technology to liquids including cellulosic Biofuel from plants that are not used for human and animal consumption.
Most of the second generation biofuels are being developed such as biohidrogen, biomethanol, DMF, Bio-DME, Fischer-Tropsch diesel, biohydrogen diesel, mixed alcohol and wood diesel. Cellulosic production uses a variety of plants that are not used for human and animal consumption or non-edible waste products. Producing Ethanol from Cellulose is a difficult technical problem to solve.
Various livestock breeding animals (such as cows) feed on the grass and then use the digestive process associated with a slow enzyme to break it down into glucose (sugar). In the Cellulosic ethanol Laboratory, various experimental processes are being developed for the same thing, in which the sugar produced can be fermented into ethanol fuel. The use of biomass waste to produce energy can reduce a variety of pollution and disposal problems, reduce the use of fossil fuels and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. A report concludes that in Europe by 2020 there will be 19 million tonnes of oil available from biomass, with 46% of bio-waste: comprising urban solid waste, agricultural residues, livestock waste and other biodegradable waste streams.
The gas energy source is derived from the final waste shelter that produces a certain amount of gas because the waste that is buried in it undergoes anaerobic digestion. Collectively these gases are known as landfills gas (LFG) or gas dumps. Landfill gas can be burned either directly to generate heat or generate electricity for public consumption. Landfill gas contains about 50% Methane (CH4) ie gas that is also present in natural gas.
Biomass can come from plant material waste. Methane gas (CH4) from human and animal dung shelters entering the atmosphere is undesirable because Methane (CH4) is one of the most potent greenhouse gas gases that exceeds carbon dioxide (CO2).
Along with the increasing population growth and living population in the world, it is felt that the use of Biofuel energy from certain materials can threaten the availability of food for the fulfillment of the needs of human and animal life. The selection of biofuel energy materials should eliminate the danger of food availability for the fulfillment of the basic needs of humans and animals. The choice of using materials for energy Biofuel should be taken from wastes.