The increasing surface temperatures of the earth have a significant effect that is drastic climate change, aka global warming. Since the industrial revolution, in the last few decades the earth's temperature has increased by about 2 degrees and by 2100 it has been estimated that the earth's temperature has risen to 58 degrees. This condition is preceded by the destruction of ecosystems in a very severe nature and the depletion of natural resources. This condition is also an ecological disaster that will threaten the quality of human life, unless we begin to environmental literacy.
[caption id = "attachment_407325" align = "aligncenter" width = "528" caption = "Holcim Sustainable Construction in Widigdo, 2008"]
Some sources state that buildings or architecture are the ones that consume the most energy than other sectors such as industrial or transportation sectors. This logic makes sense because residential areas, commercial buildings, office buildings, or public facility buildings meet almost all areas of the world.
The recent global warming can not only be reduced by the efficient use of energy alone, but there must be other efforts in favor of the overall use of natural resources while maintaining the sustainability of natural resources. The ecological damage is so severe, it is time to think about an approach with an understanding towards the ecology. These efforts must be done by every human being in all activities to save the quality of nature that will guarantee the quality of human life. In every design of human activities including the design of the building is also expected to side with harmony with nature, through understanding of nature. Understanding of nature by using ecological approach is expected to maintain the balance of nature.
The phenomenon of Skyscraper Building
In big cities in Indonesia there is often a settlement of urban architecture design that is not responsive to the environment, especially to the tropical climate. The most visible example is in tall buildings / skyscrapers. These buildings usually use the glass material on the entire exterior because it is considered to solve the aesthetic aspects of the building and reduce the effects of entry of solar heat into the room. However, this has other effects of greater heat effect due to the use of artificial air conditioning (AC) to condition the room temperature. In addition, the use of glass material impact on the emergence of radiation heat generated from the reflection of glass to the surrounding environment.
The environment surrounding skyscrapers is also often not responsive to the environment with the completion of pavement systems such as roads, pedestrian paths, open space. Many public functions use paving block material for the reason of ease of maintenance. Asphalt and paving block materials have the potential to reflect the considerable heat of the sun and result in tremendous heat radiation. The wider settlement of pavement will also reduce the ability of the soil to absorb rainwater and cause flooding. Usually in urban environments with many high buildings are also very minimal vegetation and water elements, so the environmental temperature becomes very hot compared to the environmental temperature outside the city, which became known with urban heat island effect.
Wind Shadow and Wind Turbulent
The tall building creates a wind shadow (wind shadow area). The height of the building has an effect on the distance of the wind shadow area. The higher the building, the longer the shadow area of ??the wind and the smaller the wind speed in the area under the wind flow (the shadow area of ??the wind), for example in the rear of the building and the road.In addition, the tall building creates wind turbulent because of the different building heights with the building at surrounding the wind. Wind turbulent makes air pollution concentrated in the area. Likewise in the wind shadow area because the wind does not pass through the area.
Urban Heat Island
In relation to the urban heat island phenomenon, tall buildings receive solar radiation and reflect it to low buildings and surrounding environments, where solar radiation turns into a heat that fills urban areas. The area and density of existing areas around high buildings will have an impact on the regional air temperature. Coupled when the environment is minimal greening and water elements such as rivers, so the evaporation process (evaporation) will be very small so that the environmental temperature becomes hot.
Use of Glass MaterialsGlass field as a facade elements of high buildings also determine the architectural character and energy performance of a building. The glass side is also required for the provision of the landscape as well as for natural lighting. The latter function is often accompanied by an increase in heat in buildings, especially in humid tropical climates.
In Santoso and Antaryama's research (2005), energy performance due to the effect of glass wear is greater on the amount of radiant heat gain because it causes a very large heat load increase, which further increases the energy requirement for cooling. While the reduction of energy for lighting due to the increase of natural light gain, much smaller than the increase of energy for the cooling. That is, the actual high-rise buildings do not need excessive use of glass material because it will only heat the room and definitely rely on excessive air conditioning. Should take precedence passive design that incorporates natural air circulation so that more energy efficient.
High Buildings Closes Natural Light Access to the Surroundings
Tall buildings within a city have the effect of covering the access of sunlight to lower buildings. This situation can certainly be bad if the lower buildings around the high buildings continuously do not get natural lighting. The building is then forced to use artificial lighting to support the activity in it so that the use of energy for lighting takes place day and night. The constant use of energy is certainly a huge waste of energy.
Eco-Friendly Design as a Solution
Responding to various high building issues, then the design must be accompanied by environmentally friendly awareness. Not only the importance of indoor comfort, but also how the impact to the environment. Better if you can take advantage of the nature and behavior of the environment to create alternative energy for building energy more efficient, such as utilizing solar energy, wind, or water.
Measured Building Interfaces ConfigurationHigh-rise buildings whose purpose is to overcome the limitations of land and reduction of land surface cover with the building must be really able to maintain and even create a new open space. Tall and large buildings have a great impact on the surrounding environment. Tall buildings should still play a role for the environment around them, especially the environment with low-level heights (low rise) or the surrounding environment. Influence that emerged one of them is the ventilation area that will affect the thermal comfort in the vicinity. Dimensions, distances between buildings, and building positions have an influence on environmental thermal conditions.
Form, Orientation, and Building materials
The shape and orientation of buildings greatly affect the pattern of air movement in the environment. The form in question includes height, width, shape, and building plan. The orientation of the building is how to set the direction of the building to adjust the direction of the arrival of the wind and determine the effect of air movement received by buildings and outer space. The current Ministry of Public Works building is one example of high-rise building design that takes into account the form factor and orientation so that it has relatively small energy for the size of the building of that size.
Building orientation influences the air temperature of the area so that aspect must be considered in the process of arrangement of the area. However, the control of the air temperature of the area is not only influenced by the orientation of the building, but also by the constituent wall that acts as the receiver and storage of heat. Structuring the use of building materials can help to optimize poorly oriented arrangement.
Sun Shading Barrier / Sun Shading
In Indonesia alone, the design of buildings that utilize imagery for energy savings can be seen in Paul Rudolf's works, such as Wisma Dharmala Jakarta and Surabaya. In both buildings, Paul Rudolf integrates imagery in the overall design of the building, such as in Wisma Dharmala Jakarta, there are terraces that serve to provide a floating viewing below, while Wisma Dharmala Surabaya uses the concept of the temple as a form of building with imagery that is integrated in the building facade .
Utilization Wind with Wind Turbine
One of the advantages of high buildings can take advantage of the wind as an alternative energy by maximizing the design of buildings that can capture the wind that hit the building using wind turbines. One example is the Bahrain World Trade Center in Manama, Bahrain, where the building design of two towers. Wind turbines are placed in the gap between the two building towers to capture the high-flowing winds through the gap. Wind turbines are also applied at the Pearl River Tower in Guangzhou, where the building's facade is designed to direct the wind into the cracks between the floors of the building.
Utilization of Solar Energy with Photovoltaic System
The use of photovoltaic as an alternative energy in high buildings is very suitable to be applied to the facade of the building due to its large surface area. However, the intensity factor of solar radiation and building orientation must be taken into account so that this system can be utilized maximally. In addition to capturing solar radiation, photovoltaics can also function properly as sun shading that gives imagination to the in-building space.
[caption id = "attachment_407338" align = "aligncenter" width = "575" caption = "Photovoltaic application on building facade Co-operative Insurance Tower, Manchester (left) and Hong Kong Science Park (right): Sutjadi, 2011"
Must Save Energy and Environmentally Friendly
The phenomenon of high buildings is growing in almost all countries. Higher land prices and reduced land availability make high buildings a solution in responding to economic demands and increasingly urgent space requirements. Therefore the existence of tall buildings can not be avoided, even will grow rapidly in the future. However, on the other hand high rise buildings have a very vital impact on the surrounding environment, including contributing to the urban heat island effect, blocking access to light and wind of the surrounding area, as well as enormous energy consumption. Recognizing the impact of high-rise buildings, eco-friendly design becomes a necessary requirement to minimize these impacts.
Awareness of the importance of eco-friendly design has begun to be seen in some high-rise architecture in Indonesia such as the building Ministry of Public Works and Wisma Dharmala. But actually not enough to get there. Tall buildings abroad have begun to implement hybrid design or building systems that utilize natural energy such as wind and solar radiation as a renewable alternative energy source. That way, not only save energy in the building, but also can minimize the negative impact on the surrounding environment. It should also be followed by high-rise building designs in Indonesia so that it can become a potential development of adaptive designs to the tropical climate and characteristic of Indonesian architecture.
Greetings GO GREEN! ! ! !
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