JAKARTA, KOMPAS.com- The function of green open spaces in the pace of urban development often pushed by economic interests. In fact, green open space has an important role not only in the environmental and aesthetic dimensions of the city, but also in social and cultural dimensions.
The public hopes the Provincial Government of DKI Jakarta will be able to make the face of the Capital become more green.
Today, the city's growth is directly proportional to the increase in population. Consequently, the development of urban facilities and infrastructure is increasing. The need for land for development continues to increase. As a result, green areas in strategic locations are often threatened by their own economic value.
The green open space in Jakarta is currently around 75 square kilometers or just 9.8 percent of the total land area of ??the Capital City. This figure is still far from the minimum 30 percent limit as stipulated by Law Number 26 Year 2007.
Prior to the presence of laws governing green open spaces, the Jakarta city planning master plan was actually quite progressive. The Jakarta General Plan for Spatial Planning (RUTR) in 2005 provides 35 percent of Jakarta space allocated for green open spaces. In fact, the spatial development of the Capital City has shifted the function of green open space into commercial and office areas.
If observing and comparing RUTR 2005, Spatial Plans (RTRW) 2010, and RTRW 2030, it is clear that deviations of land function in the capital city. The spatial development of the Jakarta period 2005-2010 has degraded the extent of green open spaces. Nearly 20 percent of the green open space that exists turns into an economic area.
The biggest deviation of land use occurred in North Jakarta and West Jakarta. Green areas in West Jakarta decreased by 34 percent and in North Jakarta decreased by 25 percent. Meanwhile, the change of function of area in Central Jakarta concentrated more on land conversion. No less than 60 percent of residential areas in Central Jakarta turned into commercial and office areas.
Currently, Jakarta is cleaning up to restore its green land. The 2011-2013 City Spatial Plan aims to control the potential of existing green areas by 23.6 percent of the land area of ??Jakarta. Of course this is not an easy job for the stakeholders at this time.
A number of efforts currently being made to restore green space in the capital include building parks in Pluit Reservoir, North Jakarta, and Ria Rio Reservoir, East Jakarta. DKI Jakarta Provincial Government under the leadership of Joko Widodo is preparing land acquisition for green open space that will be integrated with the flats. The first location prepared is a tower in Marunda, North Jakarta.
Add city park
Jakarta's development is more focused on building business facilities. The proof, the construction of malls is much more massive compared with the construction of other public facilities, such as green areas and public spaces. The figure of Jakarta as a city of a thousand malls indirectly also forms the social culture of the community. Due to limited public space, people tend to make the mall as a place to socialize. This situation plays a role in shaping a consumptive culture in the community.
Urban parks not only serve as a green area to reduce pollution, but also become water catchment areas. In addition to maintaining the quality of the environment and beautify the city, the park can also be an alternative public space as well as a social media. The function of the park in a number of major cities in the world acts as a center of social and cultural activities of the community.Jakarta actually also has some city park that is ideal to function as a social space. Unfortunately, the condition of most urban parks is still considered inadequate by the majority of the public. The comfort and safety factors are still the main consideration of the public to visit the city park.
Nine of the 10 polled respondents expect the government to add or expand the city park and its supporting facilities.
The government shows efforts to beautify Jakarta by budgeting funds
Rp 500 billion to build at least 30 urban parks in five areas in Jakarta during 2013. For the time being, the development of city parks is focused on East Jakarta and South Jakarta.
Besides aiming to beautify the city, the development of the park is also an effort of the city government to reach the target of green open space as defined by law. However, the problem of land acquisition is still a constraint because most of the land is a disputed land.
Forest and city parks are the main priorities of Jakarta Provincial Government today to create a green open space that is comfortable for residents. However, some of the public assess the efforts of the Provincial Government of DKI Jakarta to fix the forest and city park so far has not shown satisfactory results. Half of respondents rate, the existing city park is not yet suitable to be a place of recreation, social interaction, or exercise.
The Jakarta Parks and Cemeteries Agency stated that the number of parks in the whole Jakarta area reached 1,178 parks. If seen in quantity is quite a lot. However, his condition is considered not succeeded in making Jakarta look greener and more beautiful. At least this opinion is voiced by half of respondents to this poll.
The target of greening of Jakarta Provincial Government in 2013 reaches 80 hectares in five urban areas. The government of Jakarta under the leadership of Jokowi targets the presence of at least one park in a kelurahan. So far, more greening movements have come from citizen initiatives. The development of the park in the smallest neighborhood of residents, namely the environment of houses, has so far become the main driving force for the realization of the greening of the city.
The majority of respondents acknowledged, in their neighborhood there are parks. As many as 65 percent of respondents said there is at least one park near where they live even though the condition is not necessarily worthy of a place to gather, spend spare time, or socialize with the environment.
No fewer than 21 percent of respondents said they regularly visited the city park at leisure. While almost 60 percent of others claim to sometimes just visit the city park.
(SUSANTI AGUSTINA S / SUWARDIMAN / LITBANG KOMPAS)