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All Starting from Sewing Machine
In 1589, Queen Elizabeth I refused to grant a patent on a person's intelligent discovery, she was William Lee, who was able to model hand gestures while knitting on a machine. The Queen refused on the grounds that this machine would damage the conventional textile industry. 200 years later this tool revolutionized the way the textile industry worked, the machine that the queen had rejected into the most used machine in all the textile industries of the time. With that tool the textile industry is able to produce fabrics en masse in a faster time. This then became the most important momentum in initiating the first industrial revolution.
The late 18th century ago exactly, the first industrial revolution took place. This event has inherited engine-based steam and power technology that can replace the power of human muscle. The first industrial revolution was based on Newton's discovery when formulating the law of motion. Since then, motion is more comprehensible and measurable, which then allows humans to make steam engines that can mechanize jobs previously performed by humans (Xing and Marwala, 2017). This first industrial revolution could be said to be the birthday of the machine.
Great Britain became the first region to experience this revolutionary change which then spread to Europe and America. This change is felt in every aspect of life, not apart from the world of work which then change the whole social order and psychology of society.
How not, lower-middle-class workers who rely more on the ability of muscles displaced by the machines. The first industrial revolution at least resulted in 1/3 of the total workers experiencing unemployment and a third of them again working part time because of its ability to be able to be taken over by the machine. The use of this machine increases the need for coal which then raises the most commonly discussed issues today, global warming.
From the demographic aspect, in 1750 the number of British people 6.5 million people increased 400% in 1990 to 32.5 million people. In 1750, 80% of rural people, living in villages and 20% of the people living in the city, turned 180 degrees in 1850, 80% of the people lived in the city and 20% of the people lived in the village.
The pattern of community life that initially farms and relies on food and food supply from farm produce turns into a community of industrial laborers who work in factories and offices. To date, we can feel the impact of the industrial revolution on the high urbanization and dominant industrial patterns of industry.
Material Revolution and Mobilization Revolution
100 years later, Sir Henry Bassemer invented a new way of making steel from scrap metal. This method revolutionized steel manufacturing to be cheaper, increased scale and speed of production, and reduced the need for workers in its manufacture (Mokyr, 1998).
As a result, mass production of steel occurs. Steel replaces iron that proves to be weaker and more expensive. Steel proved to be cheaper and more durable enables the construction of the train line to be cheap, consequently accelerated development can not be avoided anymore. The existence of railway and development that increasingly evenly change the pattern and intensity of transportation and supply chain which resulted in decline in commodity prices such as coal and steel.
This transport system also revolutionized the mobilization of everything, including in the dissemination of information and knowledge. This discovery allows more humans to wander for specific purposes such as learning. It then also changes how science and technology spread. Because of the lower cost of transportation, the easier the transportation is accessible, the more human and moving goods at affordable prices. As a result, economic growth increases and the increase in competence and expertise is also increasing.Faraday and Maxwell accelerated the industrial revolution of this two volumes through their magnetic and electric forces that created the generation of electricity and electromagnetics that were widely used in later industrial systems (Xing and Marwala, 2017). This power supports the industry to do mass production (Schwab, 2016).
This electrification is also the cause of a major change in industrial production methods, called assembly lines and mass production. Electification also gives industry the ability to work for 24 hours without stopping. Which means that work time is also increasing for employees. They can work up to 10-16 hours a day. It brings workers to bad conditions such as low wages, poor working conditions (less lighting and no engine safety). This results in widespread deprivation of poverty and depression.
Rapid mobilization has accelerated the spread of science and technology. The next era is the era of transistors. The transistor initiated the invention of computers and the internet. Transistors have brought people to the invention of computers that have become the fastest data processing machines ever. In the same era, the internet is found, the most massive information distributors can be realized. The Internet is changing the way humans spread information and knowledge. Energy has become the basis of the second industrial revolution, while the third industrial revolution is the era of information and knowledge. First letters may be very useful in sending out news or disseminating information.
It takes days and months to wait for a letter to be delivered to a specific destination. At that time the mail system was still a unity with the transportation system, so the letter relies heavily on the development of the transportation system. As well as knowledge, one needs overseas and travels hundreds of miles to meet a teacher and gain knowledge from him.
After that, just return to the area to disseminate the knowledge gained. However, since found the internet all changed. It only takes a few minutes for an information to be delivered. Content and knowledge books available on computer servers on the internet can be downloaded and learned with just one double keypress. The Internet makes the earth seem to spin faster.
Acceleration of knowledge has implications for acceleration of innovation. This era makes the machine capable of sensing and making decisions individually. Computer technology brings the engine to the next generation, the automation of the machine. Computers carrying machines in industry can work without human control in accordance with what has been programmed by humans. At that time data and information transfer were limited to one factory system.
Intersystem data transfer is still not possible due to the limitations of data transmission technology. Next is the era in which the systems communicate with each other and each individual system is able to learn and grow like a human. What does this era look like?
Industrial Revolution 4.0
Currently, we are at the end of industry 3.0 and are on a transitional journey towards an unprecedented industry-style change, the cyber-physical industry 4.0. The third industrial revolution has been able to make glass doors open offices automatically or able to close our water supply pumps when it is fully charged. Then what kind of period will we face after this?
Imagine if we are going to work, then you call the car you have through your smartphone to drive you and stop right in front of you. On the way, you enjoy a cup of coffee provided by the coffee maker every morning in your car and access the latest information through the projected screen on your car windshield. Meanwhile, your car drove at a steady pace with the ability to self-driving without stopping because of traffic lights.Yes, each car is able to communicate with each other to enable them to drive without colliding. Such is the description of industry 4.0, when all objects have been made automatic, then the next step is to make them able to communicate with each other like a human to rebuke his friend when meeting or away from those who have problems with his health.
In 2011 at an event entitled "Hannover Mesese" The German government launched an entirely new industry concept of the future. Manufacturing digitization is raised as a theme that is the basis of this future industry concept, they call it "Industrie 4.0". The academics and corporate leaders who poured the concept did not know that the concept would spread rapidly and become the world's future industry concept. 5 years later, the concept became viral and much talked about in conferences and seminars related to future industry concepts.
Industry 4.0 is a new paradigm of revolutionary industrial ways. This paradigm creates the realization of integration and interconnection between machines, products, components, individuals, and information technology that becomes unity in industrial systems. Integration, interconnection and flexibility are the principles that will bring this four series industry revolution. The fourth industrial revolution can be said as machines that can communicate with each other.
This interaction allows traffic lights located in East Surabaya to communicate with traffic lights in West Surabaya to complete traffic jams during work hours. Industry 4.0 can be said to be the next digitization of the manufacturing sector, controlled by four things: data empowerment, computing power and connections; analytical and business intelligence abilities; new ways of human interaction with machines such as touch layers and Augmented Reality; and increased transfer of data instruction to the physical world such as robotics and 3D printers (Lee et al., 2013).
In industry 4.0, data will be the most valuable thing. Data in the form of numbers and letters that can be interpreted into an information. This interpretation will be very useful in decision-making resulting from AI or Machine Learning processed. E-Commerce today for example has used data to predict demand and determine the price of goods in accordance with the number of requests and purchases are continuously monitored from the activities of the virtual world of its customers. This is evidence of flexibility in industry 4.0 and customer-oriented business by understanding the behavior and activities of customers.
In the industry era 4.0, technology development will refer to the fields of genetics, biotechnology, artificial intelligence, robotics, nantokenologi, and 3D printing (World Economic Forum, 2016). These technologies enable humans to work more efficiently and cheaper than ever. Artificial intelligence for example, allows a computer to make decisions like an expert or expert system.
If humans can make this happen, then it will quickly be distributed to all computers and machines. The expert's ability to predict the demand for the most appropriate goods or goods value is easily applied and disseminated. We only need a hardware that has sensors and is connected to the internet (IoT). Then AI software that has been installed on hardware downloaded over the internet will manage the data to be the most effective and efficient decision of the expert ever done.
From Centralization to Decentralization
These years may be the company's production operations are still centralized. In this case, they need a fast distribution system to deliver their products. However, the next few years 3D printing will change it. 3D printing enables an automotive manufacturer to manufacture goods at affordable places with its customers. This will be able to minimize distribution budget from previous era.
Predictions using AI will allow the company to determine the best production points complete with the amount of goods customers need right away. Here, 3D printers that have been placed at certain points will work on demand sent from AI processed data. Each printer works according to the design that the company has sent on its software through a fiber-optic communication network connecting the production plant points.
Changes in production patterns that are centralized in one point of production into several points of production is a forecast pattern of production in the future. Each of the machines installed by AI software or machine learning will be able to pick up the keputusaSo that smart machines this time will be able to replace not only the grunt work but also the ability of logic and human thinking. The World Economic Forum with BVL International predicts the impact of this fourth industrial revolution on certain sectors such as jobs, manufacturing and industry, supply chains, services and business models, and corporate relationships with customers. Industry 4.0 will change the most essential things that humans have (Schwab, 2016).
Then, what about humans? are they ready to beat the skill-craftsmen and robots or even get rid of the robots they make?
Cohen, Y. et al. (2017) Assembly system configuration through Industry 4.0 principles: the expected change in the actual paradigms, IFAC-PapersOnLine. Elsevier B.V., 50 (1), pp. 1495814963. doi: 10.1016 / j.ifacol.2017.08.2550.
Easton, M. (2013) The Industrial Revolution – Oxford Big Ideas Geography. Oxford. Available at: https://www.oup.com.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0017/58031/Oxford-Big-Ideas-Geography-History-9-ch5-Industrial-revolution.pdf.
Mokyr, J. (1998) The Second Industrial Revolution, 1870 – 1914, (August 1998), pp. 119.
Schwab, K. (2016) The Fourth Industrial Revolution, World Economic Forum, p. 199. doi: 10.1017 / CBO9781107415324.004.
World Economic Forum (2016) The Future of Employment Employment, Skills and Workforce Strategy for the Fourth Industrial Revolution, Growth Strategies, (january), pp. 23. doi: 10.1177 / 1946756712473437.
World Economic Forum and BVL Interntional (2017) Impact of the Fourth Industrial Revolution on Supply Chains, (October), p. 22.
Xing, B. and Marwala, T. (2017) Implications of the Fourth Industrial Age on Higher Education, ResearchGate, (April), pp. 29. Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/315682580%0D.