Liputan6.com, Jakarta Tuberculosis (TB) is a contagious infectious disease that can attack various organs, especially the lungs. TB disease is the biggest health problem in the world, after HIV so it should be taken seriously. According to World Health Organization (WHO) data in 2014, TB cases in Indonesia reach 1,000,000 cases and the number of TB deaths is estimated at 110,000 cases annually.
TB disease is caused by airborne bacterium-transmitted mycobacterium tuberculosis, from one person to another, usually through a sputum of a person who has had TB. When TB bacteria enter the body, the bacteria are inactive for some time, before then causing the symptoms of TB.
The bacteria will attack the lungs and cause the patient to cough up phlegm continuously, usually for more than three weeks. Even sometimes, people with TB will also have a bloody cough. TB sufferers will also tend to quickly feel tired, loss of appetite, night sweats, and experience high fever.
Certain factors will also increase a person's risk of developing TB. Here are a number of risk factors to keep in mind:
A weak immune system, can cause a person susceptible to TB bacteria. Diseases such as HIV / AIDS, diabetes, cancer, and kidney disease will make TB bacteria easily attack the body.
Living or working environment
Continuous contact with people with TB increases a person's chances of getting TB. If you know there are people with TB in the neighborhood, put on a mask and wash your hands frequently. People working in hospitals, nursing homes, or nursing homes tend to catch TB due to lack of ventilation, so bacteria are easily transmitted through the air.
Poverty and the use of hazardous substances
If a person lives in a remote and densely populated area, he or she will easily get TB due to lack of space or clean air. Poverty is also synonymous with the lack of access to medical care, so it will be difficult to diagnose and treat TB. Abuse of harmful substances in the long term such as alcohol or drugs will also weaken the immune system and make people vulnerable to TB.
Travel from / to countries with high TBC rates. The risk of TB exposure will be higher among people living in or traveling to countries with high tuberculosis rates, such as Africa, India, China, Mexico and the islands of Southeast Asia.
Ministry of Health, through the National TB Control Program together with WHO working together to control TB by applying the DOTS (Directly Observed Treatment Shortcourse) strategy consisting of five components, namely
1. Government commitment to support tuberculosis control,
2. The discovery of cases with sputum microscopic examination. Usually performed on people who come to health facilities with lung and respiratory complaints,
3. Perform standard treatment for 6-8 months for all cases with positive sputum examination, then performed direct medical supervision,
4. Provision of anti-tuberculosis drugs regularly, thoroughly, and on time.
5. Good recording and reporting, making it easier to evaluate treatment outcomes and evaluate TB control programs.
In addition the government also launched the Movement Find TB Obati, Until Cured (TOSS). With #TOSSTB expected to mobilize the community, starting from within the family to actively engage in encouraging and providing support to those around them who have symptoms of TB to come to the nearest health service, be a Drug Swallow for those in need and so on.The #TOSSTB Movement also encourages healthcare workers, healthcare services to deliver quality services as per standards and also invites all parties to jointly take part in TB prevention and control efforts.