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Generally Muslims have adopted a positive approach to science science. (Note: although this is not the case with IPS, pen.). Nothing in Islamic history is comparable to the war between church and science in Christianity. However, while (or the majority) of Muslims it is difficult to embrace the concept of evolution with their faith.
In the 19th century, Charles Darwin's theory of evolution was treated as a double reception among Muslims: hostility on the one hand and patience on the other. The first Muslim criticism came in 1881 from Jamal al-Din Afghani who wrote (referring to Darwin's idea of ??natural selection): "Is this fucking man deaf to the fact that Arabs and Jews have for several thousand years practiced circumcision, and yet until now there is one they have been born circumcised by itself? " On the other hand, Hussein al-Jisr, a Lebanese Shia scholar, sees a possible gap for accommodation between evolution and scripture. "There is no proof in the Quran," he wrote, "to impress whether all species, each of which existed by the greatness of God, were created all in an instant or gradual." The latter opinion is echoed later by alm. Zaki Bedawi – a British Muslim scholar – who said: "I do not see a contradiction between the theory of evolution and Islam."
Some even go further in reconciling the theory of evolution with Islam. A book published in 2005, "Evolution and / or Creation: An Islamic Perspective", claims that Darwin's ideas about natural evolution and selection are in part derived from Muslim philosophers and scholars, including Ibn Sina who died in 1307.
Today, according to Abdul Majid, a veterinary professor in Pakistan, there are three developments of Islamic thought about evolution: blatant rejection, full acceptance, and partial acceptance. However, the Muslim website, IslamOnline, supports the view of the strong denials: It is a clear fact that what Darwin's theory wants to prove goes in sharp contrast to the sacred teachings of Islam, and even to all religious teachings descended from the sky. The claim that humans have come from non-human species is anti-faith, even if we consider it to be God or "nature", because it is against the truth of the special creation of Adam that God has spoken in the Qur'an.
So far, only a few terrorist creationist activisms have been seen among Christians in the United States, despite limited events. A lecturer at the University of Khartoum was reportedly arrested and flogged for the content of his lectures and in 2006 Muslim medical students at the prestigious Guys Hospital in London distributed leaflets against Darwinism as part of Islamic Awareness Week. One member of the hospital staff was quoted as saying he found a deep concern that Darwin was being removed by people who immediately practiced as doctors.
Islamic creationism, as an organized movement, is relatively new and small, though sufficiently funded and clearly visible is growing its influence. Headquartered in Turkey and based around the Foundation for Scientific Research (BAV), headed by Adnan Oktar, who has written dozens of books under the name of author Harun Yahya. At first appearance, BAV activities seem to be part of Turkey's internal war between Islamists and secularists – those who claim to be the winners. "Darwinism is dying in Turkey, be thankful, says the director of BAV, Tarkan Yavas.BAV is also still more ambitious, expecting a future membership of Turkidi Uni Erpa.In view of Yavas:" Darwinism lives immorality, and is immoral Turkey is useless for the EU altogether . "
In th. 2007, one of the BAV publications, "Atlas of Creation", is sent free to scholars and schools of the English, Scandinavian, French and Turkish. The book is also available free on the internet – which makes it a ready-to-use material resource for students' essay purposes. BAV has frequent contacts with American creationists and, although his books appear Islamic on the surface, his arguments have shown extensively reliant on the Christian material produced by the Institue for Creation Research in California.
The Islamic scientific heritage may be one reason why Muslims in general are not bothered by modern science. There is also a popular belief that science tends to emphasize, rather than contradict, what is written in the Qur'an. Many Muslims claim that their scriptures contained scientific information that might have been incomprehensible to the Prophet or anyone else in the seventh century Mecca – and this was cited as bAlthough many scholars have … easily rejected the whole theory of evolution on the grounds of incompatibility with the subject of creation in the Qur'an, the overwhelming majority constructed types of bridge models that certain aspects were accepted and others rejected. The construction of these models frankly declares that they have the experience of meeting the two things differently from the origin of the creature as being very problematic or inconsequential. On the contrary, they hardly recognize the implicit absence of evolutionary assumptions that underlie scientific studies such as medicine, chemistry, and bio-medicine. Students in these disciplines are certainly aware that they are required to take courses and tests in relation to the theory of evolution, but they find this very unproblematic because they feel that the external reproduction of Darwin's ideas in an examination does not require acceptance internal.
In students' bridge models, microevolution and the concept of "the survival of the fittest" appear on the accepted side of the equation. The students reasoned that it was impossible to deny the logical and empirical support of these concepts. They also connect microevolution to theistic evolution, the idea that God has controlled his makhluq adjustments. Some students accept the Big Bang and believe that the Qur'an contains references to both Big Bang and even the theory of evolution.
For almost every student interviewed, macroevolution exists on the rejected side in bridge models. In contrast to microevolution, macroevolution is attributed to atheist aspirations …. Similarly, no student accepts the notion that humans are from apes … … In line with the acceptance of creation, it is clearly unequivocal that the existence of God is unquestionable among the students. Atheism is strongly rejected. All students believe in the existence of angels, jinn and demons, which they apply to supernaturalist and naturalist characteristics. Especially for medical students, doubts on the true origins of psychiatric illnesses arise – are they from jinns or gens (genetics)?
Students of the German language study all describe as having "enlightened" political views (acceptance of democracy, gender equality, etc.) – suggesting that the picky sort noted by Charfi is not suitable for Islamist and traditionalist Muslims. They note that in line with the acceptance of some theological microevolution and evolution, while the students also gave some of their own explanations: "A Moroccan student approaches the theory of evolution as a difficult holy experience In his view, the framework that supports the theory of evolution may very well exist of God's will to test the faith of his servants: is their faith strong enough to be held in the offices of reality? "
In Charfi's view, this approach – rejecting or accepting some aspects of a particular science on the basis of the literal interpretation of religious texts – is totally unacceptable. Hadlir science as a total package and trying to pick cherry, or using Qur'anic expressions to calculate the speed of light (as do some circles), make it nonsense:
Accepting partial basic laws of physics means causing the whole theory to be incoherent. Rational steps are to propose another logically coherent theory; this requires analysis of the principles underlying the theories and their interconnections and not the easy rejection of certain passages. In order to carry out such a work, an open attitude free of all constraints is necessary.
To explore, understand, criticize, innovate, create without forbidding any questions, without closing any field and giving free imagination to play – these are real suggestions without the need to say that someone has freed themselves from all dogmas. This is unfortunately not the case in the Islamic world where reference to the sacred is not to be avoided and where the most correct thing socially must be in conformity with Islam rather than believing in God. It is for the sake of reference to the sacred that should not be avoided until scientific knowledge must be cultured.
Source: What's Really Wrong with the Middle East, by Brian Whitaker (Saqi Books, 2009).