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Have you ever watched an advertisement from a particular agency, which gave the message that Global Warming was a threat? or Stop Global Warming and so forth, and the ads are made by a particular institution? For example the Environment Agency or the Ministry of Environment? These ads are simply referred to as Public Service Ads or in the international sphere referred to as Public Service Announcement (PSA).
This public service ad has a special feature, that is non-commercial (Bator & Cialdini, 2000: 527), designed to inform audiences about behavior in a community. So this means not aiming to reap the profit or profit in using the mass media approach. Hornik also mentioned that PSA or Public Service Announcement provides benefits in promoting pro-social attitudes or behavior as a necessity, so that attitudes can be pervasive in many people (in Bator and Cialdini, 2000: 527).
In addition to the community service itself, much of the persuasion research is aimed at changing attitudes and adapting to that change of attitude. Atkin and Freimuth also added that evaluation research should be able to answer or know how the attitude and behavior of the audience first. It is important in the design of a campaign, then there is an evaluation of how its execution, and its effectiveness before and after the campaign (in Bator and Cialdini 2000: 528).
Since these public service ads are referred to as promoters, there is a communication theory relevant to this type of advertising, the persuasive communication theory. Advertising is a form of application of persuasive communication theory.
Starting from this persusive word, Bator and Cialdini also write how to make this message can persuade the target. Things we need to know is to recognize the attitude and behavior of the audience if dihapakan on a message or campaign in an ad or Public Service Announcement. How to find out is through research. There is a paper from Bator and Cialdini which states that it holds an attitude stimulated by a systematic process, written in English written Attitude Persistence Induced by Systematic Processing. What does it mean?
Bator and Cialdini cite an example of understanding from Cook and Flay (1978). The thing they found written:
Participants who thoughtfully considered message content demonstrated more enduring attitude change; in contrast, presentations are typically short lived (in Bator and Cialdini, 2000: 530).
From these findings, more or less we can understand that participants who really reflect on and consider the contents of the message demonstrated to him that his attitude is more resilient to change attitudes. Whereas if the participant has little ability to think about the message shown, then the resulting impact does not need to wait a long time. In short, the author tries to understand that the attitude that is not taken for granted or accepts raw to a message is a form of self-resistance to attitude changes. While people who do not consider the message given will bring a change of attitude quickly.
Then Petty and Cacioppo make an experience (more or less) about the persuasion model. The deepening of this model involves two approaches; peripheral route and central route, depending on the ability and willingness of the target audience or audience in processing messages. The peripheral route is used when the motivation or ability of the target or audience is low in thinking of an issue.
The use of peripheral persuasion rarely reaps results in producing change when the audience has an initial knowledge or interest in an issue. An example of peripheral persuasion given by Bator and Cialdini is the use of public transport. An individual who has not considered the use of public transportation is supposed to pay attention only to the actor or jingle that is pleasant to hear in the public service announcement.
While the central process persuasion biasalnya occur when the audience is motivated and able to consider the contents of the message persuasive. The process of central persuasion occurs when the issue is close and relevant to the audience. Central route is said to succeed if; integrated to build trust and understanding. An example is the target or audience is motivated to use public transportation because it sees a prominent figure doing the same thing, using public transport.Next on memory or memory. Pro-environment public service ads are not shown or presented in a specific form when the target must respond to a message, instead the ad is presented in an idea that the target will respond with the desired behavior. To determine guidelines that will improve the response or effect of these public service announcements, it is important to understand how the human memory system works.
Bator, Renee. J., Cialdini, Robert. B. (2000). The Application of Persuasion Theory to The Development Of Effective Pro- environment Public Service Announcements. Journal of Social Isuues 56 (3): 527-541.