Relation of Forest to Groundwater Storage

Relation of Forest to Groundwater Storage

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[/ caption] While sitting in school, students often get the teacher's explanation that the tree is storing water. The more trees stand the more water availability for life. The perception continues to stick in their minds to adulthood. Until one day they learn about the relationship between trees or forest stands with water storage, then they believe in the importance of preserving the forest. How exactly does the forest link with water? Emil Salim (1993) said that forests have the ability to regulate the water system, prevent erosion and flooding and maintain soil fertility. Why is the forest said to have the ability to regulate the water system? This can not be separated from the existence of millions and even billions of trees standing in a forest area. That tree that holds water? Not! Trees only store water for their own needs. Land that holds water. How does the ground save water? Billions of tree stands with a canopy and a wide enough canopy will withstand rainwater eruptions. In this position, rainwater does not directly hit the ground surface, but will fall slowly through the canopy (leaf) and flow through the tree trunk. Then, the surface of the soil filled with tree stands will produce a lot of litter. The litter is derived from organic matter in the form of deciduous leaves and twigs that fall. Gradually, the litters are heading to the process of decay. Organic material is collected above the soil surface (top soil). One of the functions of litter and underwater plants (grass) is to hold the water from the canopy dropped so it does not directly hit the ground surface. Another function of litter, under this organic material becomes a living place for millions of living organisms (such as worms). This organism punctures the soil as its home and place of life. The behavior of these organisms causes the soil surface to become loose and porous. As the rain dripping from the canopy fell on the litter, slowly the water flowed to the ground. The loose and porous top soil layer will absorb the water for further storage in the aquifer. The high ability of water absorption by the surface of the soil in the forest area, then the rain water that goes down there is not entirely into running water (run off). Most of it permeates into the soil, only a few become running water. Run off or running water is water that can not be absorbed by the soil surface. This water will descend to the lower region. If running water exceeds the carrying capacity of the river can certainly cause flooding. Certainly, most of the rainwater that descends in the forest area will be absorbed by the soil and stored in the aquifer. Furthermore, the water stored in the aquifer will come out regularly through the spring. From these springs, so the water flows through the rivers that are found in the forest area. There is also the underground water coming out as a spring in the wells belonging to the residents. For areas that do not have tree stands, the rain water will directly hit the ground. Continuous rainfall collisions can erode the topsoil. Continuous rainfall collisions will erode the top soil so it can cause landslides (land slides). When the top of the soil is rich in organisms that have been eroded, live a relatively hard second ground, sometimes the second layer of ground is brick or gray. The soil layer under the top soil has no pores anymore to absorb water. As it rains, all the rainwater is sent to the lower area simultaneously. Under these conditions, the flood disaster is already on the brink of the eye. Therefore, tree stands and shrubs are needed in all places, especially in forest areas. What are the advantages of trees and bushes in the forest area?

The soil surface does not get harsh rupture from the rainwater so that the soil surface condition (top soil) remains loose and porous;
The water process reaches the ground a little longer (as it drips through the canopy and tree trunks), so the water absorption process is maximal;
Runaway water will decrease because the water deposits into the soil increases so the risk of flooding will be reduced.

Therefore, let's preserve and save our forests. Planting barren and critical land with standing trees will always be stored in aquifer. Do not delay to plant trees. A tree a year, 365 trees a year. Hijaulah this country.

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