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Antarctica – In the next few decades, sea levels will rise faster than previously thought. Recent research reveals that the Antarctic ice is unstable.
Meanwhile, the UN agency handling climate change has predicted that sea levels will rise by up to one meter in this century.
Based on research published in the journal Nature, the collapse of the Antarctic ice sheet will lead to a two-fold rise in sea level, 2 meters, at 2100. This happens if carbon emissions are not reduced.
Previously, melting ice in Antarctica was caused only by warm air and sea temperatures. However, it is now known that active processes, such as the collapse of large ice cliffs, are also a trigger for rising sea levels.
"That (rising sea levels) could cause catastrophes for low-lying cities," said Professor of the University of Massachusetts Amherst, Robert DeConto.
As quoted from The Guardian on Thursday (31/3/2016), DeConto also explains if global warming is not stopped, sea level rise will change from millimeters to centimeters per year. "At that point it is not about prevention techniques, but (people) must move (from the city)," he said.
Climate change not only causes sea level rise, but also makes the storm even more fierce. Low-land cities, such as New York, Mumbai, and Guangzhou, can also suffer major devastation due to a combination of these.
Many coastal cities are thriving. Based on an analysis of the World Bank and OECD staff, indicating that flood damage could result in up to $ 1 trillion or Rp 13,260 trillion in losses by 2050, unless action is taken.
Areas at great risk of damage include Miami, Boston, Nagoya and cities in China, Vietnam, Bangladesh and Ivory Coast.
Recent studies that continue the previous study, warning of the possible collapse of ice sheets in Antarctica and predict sea level rise.
"The bad news of high emissions is that we predict that Antarctica is likely to contribute to sea level rise by 2100," DeConto told the Guardian.However, he explained that if emissions can be reduced, the sea level rise can be reduced, although there is still a 10 percent chance of a significant increase. "This is the good news It's not too late to do and it's great." he said.
Physically active processes are known to be one way to make ice sheets crack. But the water that melts from the ice surface will flow down through the cracks and make the ice cracks widen.
"Melting water is a very destructive effect, it attacks the ice, both top and bottom," DeConto explains.
He also said that summer temperatures have been approaching or exceeding freezing around Antarctica. Under the circumstances he said, "It does not take much heat to see a dramatic increase (melting of the ice surface) and it will happen in no time."
Researchers have used the latest model that includes the loss of ice sheets from the Antarctic coast. The collapse of the ice hill can lead to ice cliffs as high as 1,000 m towering in the ocean, and if collapsed will lead to sea levels rise further.
Scientists calibrate their models with geological records on events 125,000 and 3 million years ago, when temperatures were almost equal to current temperatures but with higher sea levels.
Sea level rise is also due to water expansion when it gets warmer. In January, scientists suspect that the factor has been underestimated and adds an alarming expense to sea level rise in the future.
Today, average temperatures around the world have broken records. It has been announced that ice in the Arctic has been reduced and recorded to have the smallest size since 1979.