Image source: http://farm9.staticflickr.com/8451/7940011480_aec4346d95_z.jpg
(Manage Forest Protection Ternate Solutions)
On September 6 – 8, 2017, the Festival of National Social Forestry (PeSoNa) was held at Manggala Wanabhakti Building, Ministry of Environment and Forestry (KLHK) themed "It's Time for the People". Through the term 'Forest Prohibition' (Malut Post, 03-12-2014) the author has reviewed the management of Hutan Lindung (HL) in the area of ??3,645.4 hectares or 22.16% of the total area of ??Ternate forest (16,448.3 ha).
On this occasion, the author again reviewed the management of 'Forest Prohibition' by raising the issue of social forestry (social forestry) in Ternate.
Forest for People: A Philosophy
Forestry development before the New Order collapse has undergone a paradigm shift, from Timber Based Forest Management (TBFM) to Community Based Forest Management (CBFM). Simply put, there is a change in forest management orientation from timber-based (industrial) to economic benefits and management forest-based (empowerment) communities. It also changes the centralistic paradigm by the state towards the development and improvement of people's welfare.
The issue of social forestry has been rolling since the World Forestry Congress in 1978 in Jakarta themed Forest for People. At the congress all the world leaders agreed, forest management should be aimed at improving the welfare of the people, especially the poor around the forest. Forest for Peopleini's spirit also encourages countries with diverse patterns, such as Tanzania, India and the Philippines.
Since the Congress the Government developed the Social Forestry for 3 (three) periods, ie the New Order period (1970s-1980s), top down, the Transition period (1980s-1990s) with greater community engagement, and the Reformation (1990s-2000s) forest managers (Ismatul Hakim, et al., 2010).
According to Yurdi Yasmi, in the spirit of Forest for People, forestry development in the decentralization era needs five conditions: 1) establishing strong and credible forestry institutions (strong and credible forestry institutions); 2) strengthening and refining the forest decentralization process; 3) harmonization of forestry sector policies; 4) application of law; and 5) the role of civil society (Banjarmasin Post, 22-11-2007 / www.cifor.org).
Social Forestry – Community Forest: An Initiation
Social forestry is a policy of forestry development aimed at encouraging the establishment of a competitive forestry business system, managing the region and local community-based institutions by synergizing the existing potentials of government, private and community resources and natural resources.
Community forest is defined as a forest management system carried out by individuals, communities, or groups, on state land, communal land, customary land or individual (family) land to meet individual / household and community needs, and may cultivated commercially or simply for subsistence (Suhardjito ed., 1998).Although ontologically the same from CBFM paradigm or Community-Based Forest Management / PHBM, epistemologically the concept of social forestry (SF) is different from the concept of community forest (CF). The difference between the two concepts is the source of forest management initiatives. The SF Program is a government initiative in response to socioeconomic pressures and initially always within the country. In contrast, CF concepts and implementers are largely initiatives of their own communities with locations within their own private, customary and state-owned forests, or above "disputed" forest areas between communities and countries (Awang, 2003).
Measuring Malut Social Forest
The Social Forestry Activities in North Maluku (Malut) is the Community Seed Garden (KBR), the government facilitation in the provision of forest plant seeds and multi purpose trees species (MPTS) that the process is made by self-managed by farmer groups. Seedlings resulting from KBR are used to rehabilitate and plant on critical land, empty land and unproductive land in its territory. Since the beginning of the program (2010) until 2016, recorded KBR in Malut produce 21,331,467 seedlings of seedlings. Plants cultivated approximately 65 endemic species such as binuang, cloves, nutmeg, linggua, sengon, walnut, ketapang, mangrove and so forth. KBR activities are followed + 606 community groups in which the work involves women and young people (adolescents). So KBR can be said one of the government programs that are gender responsive.
In addition to KBR, Malut has been allocated Social Assistance (Bansos) activities from the government through a Conservation Based Rural Community Empowerment Program (PPMPBK). In contrast to KBR, PPMPBK is relatively instant in the form of tree seedlings (sengon, mangrove, samama, mahoni), MPTS (nutmeg, cloves) and agriculture (maize, peanut) directly and sometimes added livestock (cattle, goats, pig) according to the needs of the community. Since it was rolled out in 2013, until last year (2016) the aid has been handed over to approximately 81 farmer groups. In addition, in 2015, land and water conservation (KTA) activities have been established in the form of five units of retaining dams in West Halmahera.
Furthermore, Community Forestry in North Maluku includes Indigenous Forest (HA), Hutan Kemasyarakatan (HKm), and Village Forest (HD). According to the authors, the potential of Indigenous Forest in Malut is relatively unidentified and thoroughly inventoried (Malut Post, 21-9-2016). So far there has been no central and local government policies that seriously develop the management of HA. This is an irony in the midst of the many indigenous and tribal peoples (MHA) in the Malut + 57 registered communities, and + 100 unregistered communities (Data SAFE Malut).
Social Forest: Alternative Manage HL Ternate
Community Forestry is widely implemented in Hutan Lindung (HL) as a form of community participation in managing state land. Community Forestry in developing Malut is HKm and HD in Ternate City. HKm is held in HL Gunung Gamalama and surrounding area. HKm Ternate becomes the sole achievement of the entire target of HKt Malut working area (PAK) facilitation. From the target of HKm Malut facilitation of 700 hectares has been successfully established PAK HKm of 290 ha based on the Decree of the Minister of Forestry (Kepmenhut) Number SK.426 / Menhut-II / 2013 dated June 12, 2013. PAK HKm issued based on the proposal of the Mayor of Ternate through Letter Number : 522/93/2011 dated 15 April 2011 which was followed up by the Ministry of Forestry by establishing Verification Team from central and local government.
The working area of ??HKm in Ternate is located in three locations, namely Maliaro and Marikurubu (Central Ternate) and Tubo (North Ternate Subdistrict). The municipal government of Ternate has issued a business license for community forest management (IUPHKm) to KTH Rubahongi (Maliaro), KTH Ake Guraci (Marikurubu) and KTH Tunas Muda (Tubo) through Ternate Mayor's Decree No. 138 – 140 / II.11 / KT / 2014 dated 11 September 2014 on the granting of IUPHKm in the Gamalama Protected Forest Area of ??290 hectares.
HD in Ternate in the form of facilitation of proposed work area candidates. In 2015, BPDAS Ake Malamo facilitated the proposal of a 710 Ha HD Working Area candidate from the Mayor of Ternate to the Minister of LHK and has been verified by the Central and Regional Team on December 15, 2015. The proposal file was signed by Pj. Mayor of Ternate, Drs. Idrus Assagaf. The proposed and proposed HD area of ??five villages in three sub-districts, namely Ternate Island (Afe Taduma / 200 Ha, Tobololo / 150 Ha, Foramadiahi / 125 Ha), Central Ternate (Moya / 150 Ha) and Pulau Hiri (Dorariisa / 85 Ha).
Indeed, facilitation of proposed HD area candidate has been done several villages in Central Halmahera, West Halmahera, North Halmahera and Tidore Kepulaun. Due to tenure problems (village boundaries),According to the authors, currently the promising alternative for Social Forest management in Malut, especially Ternate is HKm and HD. Things that can be 'sold' in such activities are environmental services such as ecotourism management, multipurpose cultivation (nutmeg, clove, walnut), non-timber forest products (bamboo batik, palawija and rampa-rampa) and yield processing (syrup, dodol , sweets and so on). For example, HD in the village of Dorariisa (Hiri Island) can manage ecotourism by 'selling the story': if it successfully climbs to the top of the mountain can see Batang Dua Island, the charm of sunrise – sunset and green gems in Ternate Island and surrounding areas. So, managers can make a climbing path and a substation of view (sabua) in every resting place complete with aer guraka, fried bananas and other snacks. Nature tourism HKm Kalibiru, Kulon Progro (DIY) and some areas in Java Island can be a reference for ecotourism management developed by communities in protected forests (Kompas, 5-12-2016).
The existence of Forest Management Unit (KPH) Ternate – Tidore (Governor of Malut Regulation No. 69 of 2016) can accommodate the activities of Social Forestry in Ternate Protection Forest. It is expected that the potential of natural resources (SDA) in Ternate and the earth Moloku Kie Raha in general can be well managed so that the sustainability of the community welfare around the forest also increases. Hopefully!
Awang, San A., 2003, Community Forestry Politics, First Printing, CCCS – Creation Discourse, Yogyakarta.
Ismatul Hakim, et al. 2010, Social Forestry towards Sustainable Forest Development Restoration, Center for Climate Change and Policy Research and Development, Ministry of Forestry, Jakarta.
Muh. Arba'in Mahmud, 2015. Moloku Ecology of Kie Raha, The Idea of ??Forest Ecosystem Control of North Maluku, Jogjakarta: The Phinisi Press.
Suhardjito, D., and Darusman, D., (ed.), 1998, Community Forestry, Various Patterns of Community Participation in Forest Management, Bogor Agricultural University – The Ford Foundation, Bogor.
Banjarmasin Post, 22-11-2007 / www.cifor.org
Malut Pots, 03-12-2014
Malut Post, 21-9-2016——, North Maluku Governor Regulation No. 69 of 2016 dated December 28, 2016 on the Establishment of Technical Implementation Unit (UPT) of Forest Management Units (KPH) at the North Maluku Provincial Forestry Office.
 Youth PED BPDASHL Ake Malamo (LHK Ministry) – Secretary of the Moloku Kie Raha Watershed Coordination Forum / Management of Gamalama Watershed Coordination Forum