Sukabi Beans, Biodiesel Energy Sources in the Future

Sukabi Beans, Biodiesel Energy Sources in the FutureThis writing is based on my personal experience while living with my grandparents in the village of Nurobo (Meo Troi village) of Malacca-NTT Regency. While still a child around 1977-79, the source of the house room lighting one of them only rely on local energy from Sukabi or Kusambi fruit. I watched as I was shepherding my cattle, grandfather or grandmother picked up the seeds of Sukabi or Kusambi. The dried Kusambi seeds are collected in a wicker container.

Upon arriving home, my grandmother or grandfather dries up again in the afternoon sun until Sukabi's seeds are completely dry. Then Kusambi seeds pounded until smooth with pestle. When really smooth, cotton fibers are inserted. Then grandma issued a collision of Kusambi seeds and then formed into axes in a stick that is ready to burn for a night. May I write that throughout the night, about 20-30 lidi burned out to produce a bright source in the room of the house.

According to my grandparents, the axis of this stick is known as the Malacca Clown. The illumination produced by the axes of dried Sukabi seeds processing material has traditionally inspired the making of Novel Clown Malaka by Novel author from Malacca district Robertus Fahik. What is meant by the Clown of Malacca in Novel Badak Malaka is the lantric of the traditional Sukabi bean preparations in the district of Malacca, the province of NTT that produces the Malacca fire.

The axis of light is placed in a container of a fairly large, round-shaped East fruit called Babonu. In the long period of time, Malac is using this axis as the source of the room's light. The neighbors of the past welcomed the night, the Malacca's axes had to be prepared from daylight. Usually the axis is burned to produce lights and useful as home lighting during cooking and telling stories between fellow family members after dinner until the evening break.

When I was in high school, I read to know the source of energy from Kusambi seed (Schleichera oleosa). The Tetum NTT people call him Sukabi, while the Dawan people call him Usapi. Apparently the oil content in Kusambi seeds is very high. The seeds of Sukabi contain many levels of biosel. The content of vegetable fatty acids in Kusambi seeds is very high.

Biodiesel is an alkyl ester compound which can be used as fuel for diesel engine, derived from derivative oil or vegetable / animal fat. Kesambi oil is one source of raw materials that can be used as biodiesel because fatty acid content is not much different from the content of other vegetable oils that have been proven to be used as biodiesel.

The Journal of Forest Product Education at the Indonesian Ministry of Forestry in Bogor has conducted a study and research on the content of Sukabi seeds for biodiesel energy from Sukabi seeds. Biodiesel production process is generally through esterification reaction, transesterification. This study aims to determine the effect of process treatment on the quality of biodiesel produced. In the experiment we tried to vary the process step factor, the amount of methanol used and the time of esterification. In the main study used a complete randomized factorial design with three factors: reaction stage, amount of methanol and esterification time.

The reaction step factor consists of four levels consisting of a combination of esterification (E), transesterification (T) and neutralization (N). Four stages for the process stage are esterification-transesterification (ET), esterification-trans-esterification (EET), esterification-neutralization-transesterification (ENT) and esterification-transesterification-neutralization (ETN).

The methanol quantity factor consists of two levels: the use of a methanol-oil molar ratio of 15: 1 and 20: 1. For the esterification time also consists of two levels, 30 minutes and 60 minutes. The obtained biodiesel was then analyzed. The analysis included the analysis of acid numbers, moisture content, yield, viscosity and density.

The results of physicochemical analysis of biodiesel showed moisture content of 0.10 – 0.82%. Biodiesel acid number obtained between 0.625 – 1.330 mg KOH / g oil, kinematic viscosity 12.70 – 16.40 cSt, density 0.906 – 0.920 g / cm3 and yield of biodiesel after deguming 63.01 – 96.93%. ENT process is the best process compared to other processes.

Since ancient times, the territory of Timor is a place of habitat that is ideal for the Sukabi tree. The area with a strong dry season is perfect for growing the Sukabi tree. This tree grows wildly in the forests of Timor. Sukabi seeds from the Sukabi tree thrive in the forests of the island of Timor-NTT. So far, Timorese have relied solely on Sukabi or Usapi trees from the forests alone. The time has come for us to think about planting massively to become an abundant new energy source in the future.Sukabi tree turned out to be a seed tree. The results of this tree have been of great benefit to the needs of the Timorese since the past. I am sure, the seeds of Sukabi (Usapi or Kusambi) are perfect for becoming a biodiesel energy source in the future!

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