The world's fuel oil crisis has encouraged countries to act creatively to explore new energy sources in an effort to meet their energy needs, both for the present and for the future. Biodesel is one of the promising plant species to be developed. Many sources of biodiesel energy are developed, given the common energy sources whose needs are always increasing, while the supply of fuel is running low. Therefore, sought how to create biodesel that supplies can be met for the needs.
Biodesel is an environmentally friendly type of fuel. Thus, we can save energy to prevent air pollution that can damage the ozone layer. Biodesel is a fuel consisting of a mixture of monoalkyl ester of a long chain of fatty acids, used as an alternative to fuel from diesel engines and made from renewable energy sources such as vegetable oils or animal fats. A process of lipid transesterification is used to convert the base oil to the desired ester and remove free fatty acids. One way to meet the needs of biodesel is to create biodiesel from sunflower seeds.
For this oil producing group is devoted to sunflower plants with large scale. That is, sunflower is planted more in the fields or rice fields. Then at harvest time, farmers download sunflower seeds for processing to be special. Sunflower seeds have thin cangkak with oil content of 48%. To produce one liter of oil required seeds – seeds from 60 sunflowers. This oil is then used for frying food.
However, there is oil produced sunflower seeds processed as biodiesel fuel. This fuel to drive cars and trucks. Biodiesel fuel made from sunflower seed melalaui some foolproof method. During the process, the production of biodiesel includes four stages. The first stage is degumming to separate gum in the form of phosphatide with the addition of 85% H3PO4.
The second stage is esterification with 10% NaOCH3 solution added to neutralize free fatty acid content or FFA. The third stage is the transesterification process for reacting triglyceride in oil with methanol to form methyl esther (biodesel) and glycerine. Meanwhile, the last stage is refinery or purification biodesel to get the final result according to standard.