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The appearance of the views and beliefs held by the conservative parties that are against the issue of global warming that is being spread by various parties, especially environmental activists in various parts of the world today have become hot issues to be discussed. Those who reject the existence of the movement of global warming (conservative) has a variety of arguments to oppose the issue of global warming growing in the community. In this paper also analyses about just about any claim and the paradigm used by conservatives to challenge the view that support (pro) on the issue of global warming.
The thought of which is owned by the conservative parties among them are the following conservative parties do not believe that global warming is not a problem that is very great for always be discussed and publicized, the issue of global warming has been constructed by other parties for various purposes, so that the truth of the global warming that is described in the public is still very questionable, the presence of the framing (rather than look at the facts overall and just the fact some so that sometimes the facts do not correspond to reality), framing is done to frame the news or issues about global warming, so that the conservative parties also began to question the truth of global warming itself. Framing is usually done for the benefit of the particular accentuate one aspect and eliminate the aspects of the other. Global warming may not be as has been described outside (public) so that the facts about global warming are very different. Legitimacy (acceptance) about the policy of global warming also affects the conservative parties to not believe in the existence of global warming, they assume that global warming is accepted in the public because of its legitimacy and policies that support the global warming issue, the presence of the dominant media in the metaphor about global warming in the media that the contents are more dominant in favor of the issue of global warming also supports the arguments of the conservative parties.
The presence of the conservative movement are against the issue about the existence of global warming is causing the global warming began to disappear from the media, while the views are skeptical and question the truth of the global warming issue is more dominant and more developed among the community is public for now. The last decade, the environmental movement managed to create a new movement in the international level by collaborating with scientists and policy makers to bring some problems in terms of the global environment to attract respond an the attention of the public so they are aware of the importance of maintaining sustainability in the environment that exists on this earth. With the new movement of this environment clearly raises the pros and cons of the various parties, those who support the environmental movement clearly they are pro, while those who opposed the efforts of environmental protection have begun to challenge the legitimacy of the issues that will be carried out by this movement. In this paper is focused specifically on global climate change due to the depletion of the ozone layer that exists on this earth. In the glass eyes of the social global warming successfully defined as a social problem and placed in the policy agenda by the early 1990s, while Brulle (2000) and Switzer (1997) identify several strands of "reaction" in the United States, and they argue that a new movement of neighborhood opposition conservative is the core of the new challenges on the issues of the global environment, especially about global warming.
Global warming is the process of peningkan average temperature of the surface of the water, the atmosphere, and the earth. The global caused by the greenhouse effect created from human activity itself. The presence of the global make a variety of problems that result in damage to the natural environment. The occurrence of global warming on earth is caused by various factors the behavior of the man himself. If in the examine in the glass the eyes of social science global warmiang preformance of the literature the sociological on global environmental change emphasizes the processes on the issue of global warming resulting from or caused by construction socially. Where the meaning of the construction itself is a change in the form of a problem that dikonstruk into another form in this case relates to the issue of global warming. Making use of the system new work on framing processes in social movement literature of a literature of social problems, in a paper titled Challenging Global Warming as a Social Problem: An Analysis of the Conservative Movements Counter-Claims it analyzes the counter-claims promoted by the conservative movement between 1990 and 1997 is mobilized to challenge the legitimacy of global warming as a social problem. A content analysis of thematic publications circulated on the websites of leading think tanks that have more conservative thought and revealed three counter claims that is the main problem in global warming.
First, is the movement criticized the basis of global warming is weak, if not completely wrong. Second, the motion argued that global warming will have substantial benefits if it occurs. Third, the movement warned that the measures proposed to fix global warming that will be done will be more dangerous than better profit. In short, at the thought of the conservative movement asserted that, while the science of global warming seems to be fixed again and more definite, so that the harmful effects that will emerge from the global warming policy into the little. In order to better understand the controversy over global warming, research which will do next should pay attention to the aspect of the influence of the conservative movement by identifying the crucial role of conservative foundations, conservative think tank, and especially with the sympathetic. In understanding the issue of global warming in the glass eyes of the social we must also have the ability to always have a sense of "skeptics" which means that the curiosity is very high in the deepening of a problem / issue. The existing body of the literature of social science about global warming has been dominated by the approach in the direction of the konstruksionis social (Dunlap and Catton 1994, p 24;. Rosa and Dietz 1998, p 440.) especially discussed is the problem of the social orientation of the to claim decisions. After reviewing these studies, we turn to a discussion of the theoretical short parallel and the divergence between the social orientation of the problem and the orientation of the social movement, comparing each concept of the claims and frames about global warming.
The findings of the more powerful emerging from this study include the following. First, media coverage of global warming was minimal prior to 1988 (Mazur and Lee 1993, pp. 695, Miller, et al 1990, p 29), but soon reached its peak between the middle of 1989 and the early 1990s (McComas and Shanahan 1999, p 43. Trumbo 1995, p 31. Williams and Frey 1997, p. 289). Makers claim is able to achieve media attention is increasing about global warming because of several reasons as follows :
Connections right time to is popular to discuss about issues such as nuclear winter and ozone depletion (Mazur and Lee, p 709. Williams and Frey 1997, p. 291).
Because of the extreme drought during summer 1988 (Mazur and Lee, p. 709; Ungar 1992, pp 491.492).
Because the testimony of the Senate of the dramatic James Hansen's June 1988 connect the abnormally hot weather interfere with our nation to global warming (Mazur and Lee, p 698 ; Miller, et al, p 35;. Trumbo 1995, p 25.).
Early news on global warming relies heavily on scientists as the source. However, specialists of the economic and political set aside the scientific experts as the dominant sources in the news (Lichter and Lichter 1992, p 3. Miller, et al 1990, p 34; Trumbo 1996, p. 277; Wilkins 1993, p. 78). With the shift to these sources, the news media changed its focus from stories about the science of global warming to the story about the policy debate regarding the regulation and the agreement (Lichter and Lichter, p. 2. Trumbo 1995, p 26.).
The Emergence Of The Movement Of A Reply
According to Brulle (2000) and Switzer (1997) in each case there must always be opposition to environmental movements and protection efforts that occur in the United States, but the opposition is more diverse than many observers have recognized (Switzer 1997, p. xiii). The emergence of the term "reaction green" consists of the opposition of the industry about the policy environment, as well as "grass roots" opposition as a form in movement wise to be used, the presence of the supremacy movement, and the movement of property rights. The majority of this segment tends to focus on local or regional issues, it is very challenging government restrictions on the use of natural resources. However, in the case of global environmental problems, we see there is a new opposition to the involvement of the full scale of the conservative movement in discussing social issues. So, they have a movement always opposed to environmental movements and protection, the frame of the global environmental problems mainly produces conservative movement (Beder 1997; Bruner and Oelschlaeger 1994).
The Social paradigm also includes the core elements of conservative ideology, but a belief in science and technology, support for economic growth and the future prosperity (Dunlap and Van Liere 1984). The discourse of Manifest emphasizes that human welfare depends upon unlimited access to abundant natural resources, on the development of the resources, and the transformation of resources into commodities useful through work (Brulle 2000).This study provides insight into the nature of the conservative movement (thinking old school / old fashioned) will claim that counter about global warming, future research is needed to examine the structure and operation of the countermovement is related to global warming. Journalism (Gelbspan 1997) and activist (Ozone Action 1996a, 1996b) tasked to analyze and highlight will be an important role of conservative foundations, conservative think tank, and sympathetic "skeptic" scientists in the debate against global warming, and now it's time for a sociological analysis of the deep in the phenomenon of global warming. Future work on global warming and the GEC in general, need to move beyond the analysis of environmental claims and they must work together on a scientific basis and policy for the consideration of the social forces that oppose the "environmental lobby. Thus, we clearly need to pay more attention to the efforts of the conservative movement and its industry allies to mobilize a countermovement that is effectively dedicated to the building of non-problematicity of global warming.
McCright, A. M. & Dunlap, R. E. (2000). Challenging Global Warming as a Social Problem: An Analysis of the Conservative Movements Counter-Claims. Social Problems, Vol. 47, No. 4 (Nov. 2000), pp.. 499-522.