Image source: http://media.gettyimages.com/photos/closeup-of-moringa-oleifera-tree-growing-in-forest-picture-id616633356?s=612×612
(this article was sent to some articles of Indonesian forestry magazine)
Many perceptions and opinions about the causes of forest destruction by some foresters. Some argue that forest destruction is the result of a lack of combination between people, government policies, economic and political systems that are full of corruption, collusion and nepotism. Or kerusakah forest can be caused by human actions (anthroposeres) and or by disturbance of nature itself. Forest destruction is generally caused by the increasing awkwardness of the relationship between human beings to the forest itself both in terms of the paradigm of thinking and in terms of human needs will live dependent on timber and non-timber forest products of economic value. In other words, forest sustainability can only be realized when there is harmonization between man himself and the forest with all its problems. On the other hand, some communities around the forest that for many years lived in harmonized relations with forests and forest products can not utilize these natural resources because on the other hand there are few people who monopolize the forest exploitation. This side causes the community to use all means such as encroachment and timber theft.
Forest encroachment has now become a problem of international complexity, this with the establishment of the United Nations (UN) through resolution 61/193 has proclaimed that the Year 2011 as the International Year of Forestry, in an effort to raise awareness to parties in sustainable forest management for the benefit of present and future generations.
Forest encroachment can be defined as individuals or groups in smaller and larger amounts that occupy a forest area to be used as other areas of plantation, agriculture, mining and others that are temporary or even for a long time in the state forest area located on land are not encumbered with land rights illegally and are inconsistent with conservation rules.
Multiple encroachment is caused more to the individual interest due to the urgency of the business community. In this category people are still practicing shifting cultivation patterns, although generally they know that state forest areas do not necessarily have them.
Today there are more than 10 million swidden cultivators or settlers living in state forest areas. Subsequently, the subsequent drivers of deforestation are forest fires (either intentional or otherwise) that are still difficult to control and destroy millions of hectares of natural forests and plantations in recent years.
Another cause is the conversion of forest land to non-forestry enterprises that the World Bank says account for 67 percent of the causes of deforestation due to encroachment. Forest conversion is among other things done for plantation industry (HTI), plantation, mining, agriculture, transmigration and so on. The area of ??plantations (both large plantations and smallholders) continues to increase from year to year. The most spectacular wide growth occurs in oil palm plantations, which is an average of 14 percent per year. Not infrequently, oil palm plantation development becomes a cover for stealing timber. The lack of decisive action against similar practices in the past has made this practice re-emerged lately as quoted in the site https://m.antikorupsi.org/?q=node/4239
There are several factors that cause people around the forest to encroach. The proximity and dependence of people living around the forest area with the forest, causing community interaction with the surrounding forest. Although initially the interaction between the people and the forests takes place while maintaining the conservation aspect of nature, but with the development of civilization and the need, the interaction between the people and the forest has begun to shift.
Villagers in general only control the source of livelihoods of the agricultural sector. The limited land owned by each family and the increase in demand cause some people are less able to do forest encroachment to expand the area and agricultural production. The higher the encroachment is, the higher the level of welfare it has. In addition, the level of welfare owned by communities around the forest is relatively less able. The low level of community welfare around the forest causes the low level of economic fulfillment that is increasingly characterized by the number of family members and the changing times cause the people around the forest to take shortcuts by doing encroachment. The low welfare of the people around the forest also lies behind them in various activities of utilizationSoil fertility rate is high enough, with high soil fertility causes the people around the forest to drool to open new land. Before the encroachment, many people who do not have land. After they do the encroachment of their growing land area that in fact the location of the average is near their home.
On the other hand, it is common knowledge that the occurrence of encroachment, especially timber theft is not done unilaterally by the encroachers themselves, but because of others who have other parties who have interest in timber exploitation. In this case, forest deforestation is more shown in illegal logging and timber theft. Logging and timber theft is done by the community because of the parties that accommodate both facilitate infrastructure facilities and purchase the encroachment. Some even become sponsors because it is not uncommon for people to accept advance money before doing theft wood.
Other factors causing encroachment are the limitations of the forestry police and the advice and infrastructure held for the purpose of supervision of the encroaching community. Or even after the forestry police officers make the arrests, the implementation of legal sanctions are less assertive against the forest encroachers themselves.
Road access to the area also greatly affects the conservation of nature. The ease for the expatriate community to the area will stimulate them to clear the land within the forest area. The availability of access roads will make it easier for them to transport the goods and the production of the cultivated land. Mining activities within the area also cause the entry of people into forest areas. Usually the existence of mining activities, more and more people do encroachment which resulted in further aggravating the condition of the region itself. The mine road is one of the activities of the encroachment into the forest area so that the activities of the encroachers will be deeper and even the encroachment activities can be done several kilometers further into the future.
Various problems of forest encroachment and timber theft can be done through policies such as doing inventory of forest encroachers. This is intended to obtain accurate data on the number of encroachers and the extent of encroached forest. To decrease forest encroachment can be done by persuasive method, that is by giving understanding so that perambah willing to leave location of encroachment and not come back to do encroachment.
In addition, the guidance of the community is to avoid re-encroachment on the forest area. This guidance is done by counseling of village development, community forestry development (forest socialization), bamboo plantation outside boundary, and rehabilitation and conservation.
In an effort to save the forest area from the encroachment activities by the community, through coordination with agencies and parties concerned have made efforts both preventive and repressive. Efforts made in the expulsion of the encroachers out of the forest area, as well as the encroachment of the encroacher through legal process.