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In Indonesia, the population growth is very dense which causes the increasing need for activity becomes very high. Places or containers to accommodate human needs and activities often sacrifice naturally-built environments, such as housing and commercial development on paddy fields. This phenomenon is one of the many examples of regional development which is often one of the triggers of global warming and climate change (Kusumawanto and Astuti, 2014). The rise of climate change issues experienced by all regions of the world is challenging every resident in the world to always have a pattern of life that can reduce adverse impact on the environment. Eco-friendly behavior is the obligation of all people today, no longer limited to the interest or emphasis in doing a job (Kusumawanto, 2014).
In relation to environmental issues affecting global warming or climate change, architects, perancana, and the wider community have a big role and responsibility in saving the already damaged earth. To overcome such complex environmental problems, various branches of environmental science, green architecture, or eco-friendly design areas become the axis for planning and designing development on a wide scale. Theories and concepts embodied in green architecture and Green Urban Design generally propose ideas about green environments, where the development undertaken in addition to be demanded to accommodate the needs of residents are also able to maintain the quality of the surrounding environment.
With global climate conditions and environmental degradation everywhere, green architecture in its development can no longer be present only limited to the concept or theory, but need to be applied in real design and design that is environmentally friendly and energy efficient. The design of energy saving is absolutely necessary at this time because energy saving by buildings can reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that cause global climate change (Chan and Chow, 2014).
Global Warming Phenomenon
The most serious and most important problem facing mankind today is global warming. Ming et al (2014) explained that global warming occurs as a result of unbalanced heat received by the earth with heat released back into space. A variety of scenarios have been considered to slowly reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to a heat rise temperature below + 20C. However, due to the absence of international agreements, especially by the largest polluter-producing areas, these scenarios have been considered only empty words and are not followed up with definite action (Ming et al, 2014).
Based on these circumstances, it is appropriate that the design of development as well as our behavior in planning various things need to take into account both the concept and its application in line with the aim to withstand the rate of global warming and to a minimum negatively impact the surrounding environment.
Sustainable Design Concept
Global climate change and environmental issues are fueling widespread public concerns to focus on sustainable development (Chan and Chow, 2014). Sustainability is a human effort to maintain its excellence on earth by minimizing the destruction of nature and the environment to ensure the life of future generations. In relation to the world of architecture and urban development, the approach of green architecture is an appropriate method of problem solving by prioritizing the design's harmony with nature, through technical and scientific solutions. This approach is in line with the concept of sustainable cities aimed at using energy efficiently, utilizing non-renewable natural resources efficiently, emphasizing the use of renewable natural resources by recycling, and controlling the absorption of local and global waste (Kusumawanto and Astuti , 2014). All this is intended for the survival of the ecosystem, the sustainability of nature by not destroying the land, water and air, without neglecting the welfare and comfort of humans physically, socially and economically in a sustainable manner.
One of the theories in green architecture developed at the Kyushu University of Japan in 2007 related to the concept of Sustainable Habitat System is T = WD, a simple mathematical formulation which illustrates that sustainable design has maximum T throughput of W (welfare) and minimize D (environmental damage) to a minimum (Kusumawanto and Astuti, 2014).
[caption caption = "Kawase in Kusumawanto, 2014"]
Energy Saving Architecture
In recent years, there have been great efforts to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions with the aim of mitigating adverse impacts on human health and slowing global climate change. One of the key approaches to halt the GHG emission rate is to minimize energy use (Chan and Chow, 2014). It is further explained that the buildings, as the largest consumer of electricity in modern cities today, can contribute considerably to energy conservation and GHG removal through legislative controls and energy-saving and environmentally friendly building designs. Globally, buildings consume about 40% of the world's total annual energy consumption (Omer, 2008; Radhi, 2009). The energy consumed is largely from cooling, heating, and lighting systems.
Currently, some countries have used building energy calculation regulations through the overall thermal transfer value (OTTV) value. OTTV calculation regulation becomes a simple and easy approach to determine whether a building has reached energy-saving or not (Chan and Chow, 2014). In his research, OTTV calculations can be done no longer limited to buildings with single facade like buildings in general, but also buildings with double facade with formulations that have been adjusted. That way the OTTV value calculation method can be used more widely on different types of building envelopes. In a previous study, Cahn and Chow (2013) have also formulated OTTV value calculations for buildings with greenroof that are currently popular.
Green Building Indonesia
In its application in Indonesia the green building assessment tools are listed in GREENSHIP. The GREENSHIP compilation is supported by the World Green Council, and is implemented by the Green Building Council Indonesia Rating Committee (GBCI) as one of the most concerned institutions for environmentally friendly building based on sustainable development. GBCI in conducting evaluation activities on a design using the greenship rating system used to conduct an assessment of a building. The rating system itself is a tool containing items from the assessment aspect called rating and each item has a rating or points. An architectural design will be certified as a green building when it meets a certain number of points according to the criteria contained in the greenship rating tools. In the official website of GBCI (www.gbcindonesia.org) several green building criteria proposed include:
Appropriate Site Development (ASD)
Energy Efficiency & Refrigerant (Energy Efficiency & Refrigerant / EER)
Water Conservation (WAC)
Material Resources & Cycle (MRC)
Air Quality & Air Comfort (Indoor Air Health & Comfort / IHC)
Building Environment Management (Building & Enviroment Management / BEM)
The criteria contained in the greenship along with a detailed explanation of each criterion is actually very helpful to the architects and planners in planning the development so that it is directed to a spirit of green building (Kusumawanto and Astuti, 2014).
Green Area of ??IndonesiaFor a wider scope or area scale, GBCI issues a draft assessment guideline for the region in 2013. The area in question covers residential areas, downtown and business areas, and large and small industrial estates. Greenship for this region is considered necessary to measure the sustainability of urban space to maintain the quality of human life in it (Kusumawanto and Astuti, 2014). The assessment categories in this region's greenship include improved ecological land, movement and connectivity, water management and conservation, material cycle management, community welfare strategies, buildings and infrastructure.
The thermal comfort of the area becomes one of the benchmarks of the quality of the region because it can be felt directly through the sensation of a person in a place or space. An example of measuring the level of quality of the area through thermal comfort conditions is in the city of Yogyakarta that has been done by Kusumawanto in 2003. Based on these studies, the city of Yogyakarta is recommended that road pavement is not exposed to direct sunlight, but given shade in the form of shady trees. In relation to the assessment of the area by GBCI, the thermal comforts achieved through the efforts of the various spaces in Yogyakarta will increase the assessment points: Land Ecological Enhancement and Community Wellbeing Strategy.
Come Aware, Save and Energy Friendly
Population growth along with modern lifestyle has changed many development characteristics that have an impact on the changing environment as well. Globally, these environmental changes are fueling climate change and global warming that are felt today. The concept of sustainable design then becomes the main pillar of future development direction as it can lead to the design to minimize the destruction of nature and the environment to ensure the life of future generations.
The green architecture approach is an appropriate way of solving the problem by prioritizing the design's alignment with nature, through technical and scientific solutions. Building as the largest consumer of electricity in modern cities today can contribute considerably to energy conservation and GHG removal through legislative controls and energy-saving and environmentally-friendly building designs. Therefore the design of energy-efficient buildings is needed in order to achieve the design of both buildings or areas that are environmentally friendly and energy efficient so as to suppress the rate of global warming. In its application in Indonesia the assessment tool for green building has been regulated by GBCI so that it can be a guideline in the implementation of certain area or building development.
This article is still limited to discuss how the importance of promoting the principles of energy saving or green design from the eyes of architecture or regional development. However, there are still many more micro-scale perspectives to be used in the face of the energy crisis and the global environment. For example related to our daily lifestyle. How to manifest our environmental awareness in our everyday lifestyle. What has we done so far enough to have a positive impact on our environment? At least the warning of the world energy day is a bit of fishing hearts and our minds that all the energy we make and use will have an impact on the environment, ranging from smallest scale to global.
Hail Go Green! ! ! !
Astuti, Zulaikha Budi; Kusumawanto, Arif (2014) Green Architecture in City Innovation, Gadjah Mada University Press: Yogyakarta
Astuti, Zulaikha Budi; Kusumawanto, Arif; Sabono, Ferdy (2014) Zero Waste Pandansimo Master Plan, A Green Urban Design Approach, Arte-Polis 5 Intl Conference Reflections on Creativity: Public Engagement and the Making of Place
Astuti, Zulaikha Budi; Kusumawanto, Arif; Wilopo, Wahyu (2013) Urban Waterfront Sustainable Management Within Life Cycle Analysis Case: South European Cities, .ASEAN Journal of Systems Engineering 1.2
Chan, A.L.S .; Chow, T.T. (2013) Evaluation of Overall Thermal Transfer Value (OTTV) for Commercial Buildings Constructed with Green Roof, ELSEVIER Applied Energy 107, 1024
Chan, A.L.S .; Chow, T.T. (2014) Calculation of Overall Thermal Transfer Value (OTTV) for Commercial Buildings Constructed with Naturally Ventilated Double Skin Facade in Subtropical Hong Kong, ELSEVIER Energy and Buildings 69, 1421
Kusumawanto, Arif (2014) Application of Green Architecture in Regional Development, PAPERS in PUSTRAL-UGM.ACADEMIA.EDU
Kusumawanto, Arif; Astuti, Zulaikha Budi (2014) Green Urban Waterfront Management Case of Solo, Indonesia. Journal Of Architecture & Environment 13.2: 175-194.
Ming, Tingzhen; de_Richter, Renaud; Liu, Wei; Caillol, Sylvain (2014) Fighting Global Warming by