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Is there a man who does not need clean water? Certainly the answer: NO! Certainly, all humans must need clean water. In fact, not just humans, all other living things also definitely need clean water. However, do you know how much water is available today? Please read the exposure below.
Although 70% of our earth's surface is water, there is very little water that humans can consume. Of the total water that exists on earth, 97.5% is salt water in the sea. And only 2.5% of it is fresh water (fresh water).
From the amount of fresh water that only 2.5%, not everything can be directly consumed or used by humans. That is because, 68.7% of the amount of fresh water that was found in the form of glaciers (ice chunk). The rest are still divided into ground water, frozen ground water, surface water and moisture water.
The official report from UNESCO concludes, of the total water that exists on earth, only 0.4% can be consumed by humans. The figure is only 0.4% is even already included with water contained in animals, plants and fruits commonly consumed by humans. Water is only 0.4% is what every day is used by 7 billion more people in the earth.
Should, as a resident of the paradise of Indonesia, we should not worry too much about the issue of the water crisis. God has bestowed many water resources in Indonesia. Rivers, lakes, or springs, is a sight that is easily found in Indonesia. In addition, Indonesia also has high rainfall.
All the grace then put Indonesia into the fifth largest country in terms of water availability. With the availability of water of 3.22 trillion cubic per year, every head in Indonesia should be able to enjoy 16,800 cubic meters per year! Yes, that's for one person only! Far above the average availability of water per capita in the world that only pegs in the range of 8,000 cubic meters per year.
As a simple illustration, if on average in another country a human is given only one glass for example, but Indonesian people may be up to 2 glasses less. Indeed, God has been very pampering people in Indonesia.
But that was supposed to be, the case with reality. In fact, many regions of the country are suffocated by the water crisis. It may make little sense when the water crisis in Indonesia occurs in areas far from rivers, lakes, or other sources of water such as springs or low rainfall. What began to make no sense for example is, when the areas close to the water source actually experience a water crisis.
Call it for example residents of Gunung Kidul foot. In fact, is not the mountain one of the natural water spots? The same thing happened to Makarti Jaya, Banyuasin, South Sumatra. Although they settled on the banks of the Musi River, it was not guaranteed to get a plentiful supply of water.
There is more ironic, when the Bogor Rainy Town declared officially by the local government is experiencing a water crisis! That happened since five years ago, August 2012. Thousands of people in 12 Subdistricts (57 Villages) in Bogor turned out to have a water crisis! Once again, they, residents of the Rain City, are currently "experiencing" a water crisis, not being "threatened", but have actually experienced!
More terrible again when the water crisis is then triggered outbreaks of disease. A 2010 UN report says that every year there are 3.3 million deaths due to lack of adequate water supplies. Terrible, whereas previous data, in 2003, deaths from water shortage is only 2 million people.Diarrhea Outbreaks that according to various studies can be reduced to 45% just by washing hands before eating, was not that easy. Due to the fact that in Indonesia the case of diarrhea is still high, there are 1.2 million cases per year! Reasonable indeed. How to wash hands if clean water is not enough available.
Indonesia is in danger of a water crisis has actually been recognized by the government since 2003. At that time, the Ministry of Public Works has calculated the need for water on the island of Java for example, which amounted to 38 billion cubic meters. That's the need, even though the availability of water is only 25 billion cubic meters per year.
It is estimated that by 2020, the need will increase to 42 billion cubic meters. The need must increase as the population growth rate grows. While the availability of water is even less. The year 2020 is not a long time, only 3 more years we arrive in that year!
Why, he said earlier Indonesia is rich in water availability? It is true that our country is endowed with abundant water resources. Only the problem, our country is not good at managing the grace either! Until this moment we are still hassle with the river that overflows during the rainy season, and dryness in the dry season. Why can not the overflow water be reserved for the dry season? Either way, surely, the fact is now like that.
In developed countries, the awareness of the need for dams to regulate the availability of water is so great. With the dam, they can manage the water supply until the dry season arrives. But talking about the dam, Indonesia is lagging far behind compared to other countries.
America currently has nearly 3000 dams. India 1500 dams. Or a fantastic one, China, who has 20,000 dams! Imagine if the Chinese water minister inaugurated one dam each day, then he must spend about 55 years! That is if his daily activities only inaugurate the dam alone.
How about Indonesia? Today the country is full of God's grace has only about 280 dams. And some of them are not well maintained. Ironic indeed. Where are our governments going? The policy makers in this country? There is no way we can not afford to build many dams. No capital? Do not we have the largest gold content in papua? Or the largest natural gas reserves in Natuna Block? Or the wealth of the abundant sea? Where are all that?
Ah never mind. This paper does not intend to lead to it. Better, we become part of a solution, not a part of the problem!
As an effort to maintain the availability of water around us, there are simple things we can do together, namely: Planting Rain Water! Yes, the rainwater that is now beginning to descend on our land, must be planted, to be stored in our soil.
This logical explanation, why are we now experiencing a water crisis? Why can not our wells be relied upon during the dry season? One of the problems is, because in our land, the water reserves are running low.
Rain water should be stored in the ground that we stand on. However, because the soil absorption capacity of the water is getting weaker, the more rain water that keeps flowing than absorbed by the soil. The average of our land today can only absorb about 30% of rain water. That's because our land is too crowded. The rest, 70% continue to flow, and give rise to floods in low locations, or landslides in areas where the land is unstable, or erode the soil until the surface is lower, and the rest runs into the sea, into salty sea water. In addition to increasingly crowded, the land is also reduced due to the high activity development.Then what can we do? There are at least four things we can do, both personally and together. These four things are very easy to do. In addition to low cost, it also does not require licensing from government, or special experts.
The first is the making of biopori. Biopori is a cylindrical hole with a diameter of 10cm and a depth of about 100cm. These holes are made at the points where the water is inundated. Or it could also make a biopore in the ditch that we deliberately made. The function of this biopori is that rain water can be absorbed more by the ground that we stand. Because the solid soil, which is difficult to absorb water, is estimated to be only 30-40 cm thick. More than that depth, the soil has been able to absorb water normally.
In addition to planting rain water, biopori can also be used for handling organic waste. Waste or until organic from our homes can be incorporated into this biopore. The advantage, in addition to handling organic waste, organic waste waste can also menggemburkan our land. Making this biopori can be done in our home page.
The second is to make a catchment well. The function of the absorption well is not much different from the biopore, only its size is bigger. The water from the roof tiles can be streamed directly into the well. Maximum well diameter 1.4 meters, with a depth of about 1.5 to 3 meters. The walls of wells can be made of masonry material without plaster, hong, or woven bamboo.
As a filter, gravel and fibers can be used on the bottom of absorbent wells and walls. The government has issued technical guidance on the absorption well. Even in Jakarta, one of the permits of IMB has required the absorption well. In addition to biopori, we can also make your own absorbing wells around our homes.
The third is planting trees. It seems that this section is not very necessary to explain. We all have enough understanding, how important the tree for the conservation of soil, water and air. The more trees grow, the better.
The fourth is water-saving. Believe me, there is no guarantee that water can be consumed by humans will always be easy to obtain. Therefore, we must be wiser in using water. If today many social campaigns are calling for countries not to fight because of oil fighting, it is not impossible that the day after tomorrow we must campaign so that we do not fight because of water fighting. Now, to prevent the war from fighting for oil, many campaigns read: "No Blood for Oil!". If we can not keep the water, it's not impossible that the day after tomorrow our grandchildren must campaign with the sound: "No Blood for Water!"
You still can not believe water can trigger conflict? Yet this time it has happened in some places. Call it for example the eternal conflict of Israel and Palestine, one of which turned out to be equally fighting for control over water resources. Or water in Lake Wular that almost triggered wars between India, Pakistan and China. Closest to us the easiest example is the Cipaniis springs conflict. Geographically Cipaniis is located in the District of Kuningan.
But even so, since 1830 it is said that some people of Cirebon already use water coming from Cipaniis springs. Conflict began when regional autonomy policy was implemented. At that time the Kuningan District Government requested compensation to Cirebon for using water from its territory, last year 2008.
The greater the potential for conflict is greater, especially if associated with various other factors, such as population growth rates. In Indonesia, the rate of population growth is around 1.5% per year. If the population of Indonesia is assumed to be 250 million, that means there are about 3.75 million new mouths per year that must be filled with thirst! And of course, some of them are our children and grandchildren.
Now, it's time we care more about nature, especially water. Suffice we learn from what ever experienced the city of Stockholm, Sweden. Fifty years ago, the water in the city is not as clear today. Until then cholera outbreaks rampant in almost all corners of the city, and killed most of its inhabitants. Since then, they have learned to be wise to water.Various regulations are issued to maintain the availability and quality of water. Of course with a strict escort in the implementation. And today, they managed to show that they could treat the water wisely.
Fly to Stockholm during the summer, we can see live people who are cheerful activity at Lake Malaren. It's in the middle of town, but the water is as clear and natural as in the mountains. Water in every faucet in the city can also be directly drunk because it has been through the maximum filtration process.
Of course, we do not want nature to rebuke us like what the people of Stockholm have ever experienced. We do not have to experience a fatal destruction to make an improvement. It's time we care about nature. Let us inherit the earth which is quite comfortable for the life of our beloved grandchildren. What is the use of passing property on to our children and grandchildren, if they have to live in the midst of nature that makes their lives anxious.
Let's plant rainwater now, for the coming drought!